Ganymede and Titan

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    T H E   R E D   D W A R F   R E F E R E N C E S   L I S T   ( T V )

        A Who's Who, Where's Where, When was When and What's from What of 
                          the TV series of RED DWARF.

Version 2.10, August 1996.

%       Marks new since last version.

Edited by Annette (, just to prove that I really 
*don't* have enough to do to occupy my time.  :-)


NOTICE:  This document, its format, and all material contained herein are 
protected by public copyright, except where it conflicts with the 
copyright of Grant Naylor.  This document *may* be distributed freely in 
its entirety and posted at electronic sites where no fee is charged for 
its viewing.  It *may not* be sold or published for profit in any form.


        The RDRL (TV) deals only with the television show of Red Dwarf, 
its out-takes tapes, and the two pilots of Red Dwarf USA.  To check up
on written Red Dwarf, go to the RDRL (BOOK) which deals with the four 
Red Dwarf novels and the Red Dwarf Log No. 1996 (posted to on
the last Monday of every odd-numbered month).

        The Red Dwarf References List (TV), or RDRL (TV), is a list of 
explanations for those references made in the TV series of Red Dwarf to 
things *outside* of Red Dwarf; eg. people, movies, books, historical 
events, places of peculiar reputation, whatever.  It *is not* an A-Z of 
Red Dwarf...well, that's what the Programme Guide is for.

        The RDRL (TV) attempts to identify/explain references to movies, 
books, songs, famous people, certain places, historical events, etc.  The 
reference can be direct, ie. named (eg. Mary, Queen of Scots); or indirect
or alluded to (eg. the singing of "See You Later Alligator").
        Things which *generally* will not be counted (though there *will* 
be a few exceptions) are: furnishings, decorations and possessions (unless 
referring to one of the above listings); food (unless a proper name or 
certain brand names); sayings or expressions (unless containing proper 
names); *broad* religious parallels; scientific terminology (unless 
containing proper names).  As well, there are a very few things which are 
self-explanatory in the context of the show; these are not included 
as there is nothing left to add.  Lastly, a few things must be so well-
known there's no need for explanation -- we all know who Jesus was, right?

        The RDRL (TV) at the moment is incomplete and may also contain some 
information which is downright wrong (eg. for a couple of things I've just 
put two and two together, and *may* have ended up with five!).  Anyone who 
has a correction to existing information (though let's not split hairs), 
I'd love to hear from you.  Please EMAIL me with the substantiated 
modification (something I can cross-check ideally, and definitely not a 
"My friend heard on the radio that...").  Thanks.  
        Nearly all of the references are essentially complete as they are 
now -- mostly I'll only have one to four sentences about each reference.
Any reference not containing a "[?]" will not be modified unless it is out
and out *wrong*, or there is an additional *definite* allusion that I have
missed.  Not all things I've marked in this way will necessarily be true
external references; and I may not even have the spelling right in some

        *New* references will be gratefully accepted in the following 
categories *ONLY* -- all forms of the entertainment media; famous people; 
historical events; places of character. 

        That the references contained within this document be true 
references and *not* COINCIDENCES.  For example, I haven't included 
anything about the 'roadrunner act' mentioned in MAROONED, because it 
is not specific enough to say for absolute (or very nearly) sure that 
it's a reference to the Warner Brothers cartoon character.  I will not 
include something unless a definite (or *HIGHLY* likely) connection 
can be established.

        The actual references are divided into three sections.

                a)  Space.
A run down of the solar system's planets and their satellites.  Whether 
mentioned in the TV show or books.
                b)  Earth.
All of the countries, significant places, and major towns mentioned in 
Red Dwarf.  Whether from TV show or books.

                Direct references (not already covered above) which are 
mentioned in two or more episodes.  Listed alphabetically.  

3)        THE TV SHOW.
                Listed by episode for Series I to Series VI.  Smeg Ups and 
Smeg Outs are included, but only references from the actual out-takes 
instances, and which have not previously been mentioned.  Also, there is
a section for Red Dwarf USA.  This small section deals with the few 
references from the two American Red Dwarf pilots ('broadcast' scripts).  
Only those references not previously or since mentioned in the BBC show.

        Any reference which contains "[?]" means that I would like more 
information pretty pretty please.  The position of the "[?]" often gives a 
good indication of the type of information I want, eg. (1926-[?]) means I 
would like to know the year of death. 

        Anything new/modified from the previous version will be marked 
with a "%" in the left margin.

        The references are listed per episode as:

  PARALLEL  (where appropriate).  'Ideas/inspiration' for the episode.
  Direct references.  Listed in the order they appear in the episode.
  Indirect references (**).  Listed in the order they appear in the 

        * If a reference is not listed for a particular episode, check 
the COMMON REFERENCES section. *

        Biographies may be given for direct people references.
        Birth/death year given for actors playing a character directly 
        The words 'recorded by' as applied to songs do not necessarily 
indicate the original artist, just a well-known one.
        Movie dates may be the year of production or year of release.
        The term 'football' means the game of soccer unless otherwise 

        To get a copy of the RDRL (TV):

  a)  Wait for it on the n/g (where it will be posted
on the last Monday of every even-numbered month), 

  b)  For a start on the Web, try the following sites...

Friday's pages at

Michael Nagy's Queeg pages at

Thanks guys!  :-)

        If you can get the RDRL (TV) by neither of the above means, email
me and I'll send you a text copy.

        The nature of this document means that it is basically ONE BIG 
SPOILER.  For LOTS OF THINGS (in particular, for the movies "Casablanca"
and "Alien").  Consider this a spoiler warning -- read the RDRL (TV) at 
your own risk.

        Many many thanks to Grant Naylor, for all things Red Dwarf!
        *Big* sloppy thanks to Tom Marwede (who really, really cares about
this sort of thing!), and also to Raz (my 'foreign' correspondent, 
constructive critic, and Provider of the Logo!).  ;-)
        Thanks to Friday and Michael Nagy for giving the RDRL (TV) a home.
        Thanks to Ang Rosin, for answering my mini-mini Scouse 
        Thank you:  Damone, Cma, Elliedra, Bette Llewellyn, FroggyGrem, 
Andrew Hetherington, Jim Wraith, Phaedrus, John Coleman, Nadine SFWBWWWW, 
Fraser, Kerry Galgano, Friday, Pat Berry, Paul Barnes, Laurence Jason 
Koehn, George Rudy, Tracie Webster, Alsion Campbell, Richard Lockwood,
Steve Howell, Kay Annette Bristol, Alexander Lum, GenMelchit, Alan Moon,
Ian D. Jones, John Foster, Allan Jenney, Wendy Lynn O'Boyle, Gavrielle
Perry, Jim Shaw, Linda Stephens, Roadwart, Vicky Loebel, Urac Sigma,
Mat Page and Todd Pinarchick.

        New contributions since version 2.00:  Andrew Hetherington, Pat



A)        SPACE.

        RED DWARF  --  A red dwarf is a type of star.  Red dwarf stars 
  are very long-lived and are probably the most abundant stars in the 
  universe.  The closest star to Earth (besides its own Sun) is the red 
  dwarf star Proxima Centauri (magnitude 11, 4.3 light years away), a 
  companion to the binary star Alpha Centauri. The RED DWARF's shuttle 
  crafts' names (excepting Starbug) are also types of stars.

  Mercury:  The closest planet to your actual sun.  Named after the 
        messenger to the Roman gods.

  Venus:  Second planet from the sun.  Named after the Roman goddess of 

  Mars:  Fourth planet from the sun.  Named after the Roman god of war.

  Jupiter:  Fifth from the sun and largest planet.  Named after Jupiter, 
        chief of the Roman gods.  
        Satellites:  Ganymede (named after the cupbearer of Zeus, Greek 
        equivalent of Jupiter), Io (named after a lover of Zeus), Europa
        (named after another lover of Zeus), Callisto (surprise surprise,
        yet another of Zeus's conquests).

  Saturn:  Ringed planet, sixth from the sun.  Named after a Roman god of 
        Satellites:  Titan (named for a race of primeval Greek gods), 
        Mimas, Tethys (named after a Titan sea-goddess), Dione (named 
        after a Greek earth-goddess), Rhea (named after a Titan mother-
        goddess), Hyperion (named after a Titan sun-god), Phoebe (named 
        after a Titan moon-goddess).

  Uranus:  Seventh planet from the sun.  Named after a Greek sky god, 
        father of the Titans.
        Satellite:  Miranda.

  Neptune:  Eighth or ninth planet from the sun.  Named after the Roman
        god of water.
        Satellite:  Triton (named after the merman son of Poseidon, the 
        Greek equivalent of Neptune).

  Pluto:  Eighth or ninth planet from the sun.  Named after the Roman god
        of the underworld.

B)        EARTH.

  Countries and regions of the world:  Fiji, Denmark, Bermuda, Portugal,
        Uruguay, India, Spain, The Vatican, Burma, Bulgaria, Bosnia, 
        France, Poland, Austria, England, Italy, USA, Macedonia, Turkey, 
        Bahamas, Czechoslovakia, Bolivia, Iran, Taiwan, Belgium, Estonia,
        Egypt, Cuba, Japan, Greece, Great Britain, Mexico, Norway, Wales,
        Albania, The Netherlands, China, Vietnam, Persia, South Africa, 
        Germany (and East), Russia, Soviet Union, Tibet, Luxembourg, 
        Scotland, Mongolia, Armenia, Australia, Syria, Korea, Sweden, 
        Tunisia, Tanzania, Morocco, Ireland, Canada, Cornwall, Prussia, 
        Alsace, Bali, Java, Malagasy Republic, Zanzibar, West Indies, 
        Flanders, Burgundy, Provence, Corsica, Texas, Oregon, Indiana, 
        Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Arizona, Alaska, New Mexico, Hawaii, 
        Kentucky, Yorkshire, Orange County.

  World cities/towns:  Washington, Chicago, Salzburg, Hilo, London, Paris,
        Liverpool, Copenhagen, Helsinki, New York (Manhattan), Moscow, San
        Francisco, Houston, Madras, Rome, Berlin, Turin, Florence, 
        Bangalore, Havana, Warsaw, Casablanca, Bonn, Tokyo, Oslo, 
        Newcastle, Acapulco, Boston, Birmingham, Laredo, Dallas, Gouda, 
        Venice, Marbella, Kiev, Lagos, Los Angeles (and Beverly Hills and
        Hollywood), Detroit, Niagara Falls, Las Vegas, Gettysburg.



  Bates, Norman:  Character in Alfred Hitchcock's movie "Psycho" (1960).
        Played by Anthony Perkins (1932-1992), Bates had killed his mother 
        and absorbed her persona into himself; in his insanity he kept his
        mother's skeletal remains as part of his delusion that she was 
        still with him.
          {Kryten, Back To Reality}

  Bennett, Gordon:  (1841-1918)  James Gordon Bennett, Jr., American 
        newspaper magnate (whose father, James Gordon Bennett, founded the
        New York Herald in 1835).  Bennett was known for his extravagant 
        and capricious behaviour, and his name has become synonymous with
        a feeling of exasperation such as he frequently caused in people.
          {The End, Future Echoes, Thanks For The Memory}

  Brando, Marlon:  (1924-  )  American actor.  Best known roles in "A 
        Streetcar Named Desire" (1947), "The Wild One" (1954) and "On The
        Waterfront" (1954), this last for which he won an Oscar.  Recently
        seen in "Don Juan De Marco" (1995) with Johnny Depp.
          {Kryten, Camille}

  Casablanca:  (1942)  Classic film starring Humphrey Bogart and Ingrid 
        Bergman; love versus political principles in World War II Morocco.  
        Waiting to be definitively remade starring Peter Beardsley and 
        Myra Binglebat.  ;-)
          {Better Than Life, Camille}

  Cat:  Danny John-Jules has modelled the Cat in part on the American
        singer James Brown (1928-  ; for his 'screech'), the American
        singer Little Richard (1935-  ; for his bouffant hair) and the
        American actor Richard Pryor (1940-  ; for his facial mannerisms).

  Citizen Kane:  (1941)  Movie written and directed by, and starring in 
        the title role, Orson Welles (1915-1985).  A psychological study 
        of the life of a newspaper magnate (Charles Foster Kane), the 
        movie is much studied and is lauded as a cinematic masterpiece.
          {Me^2, Timeslides}

  Eastbourne:  Town on the south coast of England with a popular 
        reputation as a retirement haven for older/elderly people.
          {White Hole, Emohawk: Polymorph II}

  Einstein, Albert:  (1879-1955)  Pretty famous physicist actually, and 
        the theory goes that Einstein = Mister Clever (too).
          {Future Echoes, D.N.A., Holoship}

  Esperanto:  The second language of Red Dwarf, and one that Rimmer has 
        been trying unsuccessfully to learn for eight years.  Esperanto is
        an artificial, logical language incorporating principles/words 
        derived from major European languages.  It was devised in 1887 by 
        Polish philologist Ludwig Zamenhof (1859-1917).

  Frankenstein:  Book by Mary Shelley, published 1818.  A scientist
        (Frankenstein) creates a monster by reanimating corpse tissue, and
        then suffers the consequences.  Apparently, truly stupid people 
        (and Cats) erroneously believe that it was the monster, not its 
        creator, who was called Frankenstein.
          {The End, Future Echoes, Waiting For God, D.N.A., Justice,

  Goering, Hermann:  (1893-1946)  The 'bit dodgy, drug-crazed Nazi
        transvestite' associate of Hitler.  Established the Gestapo and 
        concentration camps.  Committed suicide before he could be 
        executed for war crimes.
          {Balance Of Power, Meltdown, Out Of Time}

  Hitler, Adolf:  (1889-1945)  Leader of the runners-up (the nasty Nazis)
        in World War II, and generally not a very nice person.
          {Parallel Universe, Timeslides, Meltdown, Out Of Time}

  Judas (Iscariot):  The disciple of Jesus who betrayed Him to the 
        authorities for a reward of 30 pieces of silver.  He later 
        renounced his reward and suicided in his remorse.
          {Better Than Life, The Inquisitor, Rimmerworld}

  Julius Caesar:  (c.100-44 BC)  Roman statesman, general and dictator.
          {Me^2, Marooned}

  Kryten:  Kryten's name/character mimics that in the play "The Admirable 
        Crichton" (1902), by J.M. Barrie.  The real Admirable Crichton
        was a Scottish adventurer, James Crichton (1560-1593), famous
        for his accomplishments and attainments.

  Laurel, Stan:  (1890-1965)  Born in England as Arthur Stanley Jefferson.  
        Thin partner in the American comedy duo Laurel and Hardy (Oliver 
        Hardy was 'rotund'), who had great popular success in over 200 
        films during the late 1920s to mid-1940s.  Hilarity came from how
        they set one another off -- Stan was the worrier and bumbler, 
        Ollie the fastidious one with the slow-burning temper.
          {White Hole, Meltdown}

  McClure, Doug:  (1935-1995)  American actor.  Leading man in over 20 B-
        grade films, including "The King's Pirate" (1967), "The Land That 
        Time Forgot" (1975) and "The People That Time Forgot" (1977); 
        recently seen in "Maverick" (1994) with Mel Gibson.  Also made 
        several TV series including "Checkmate", "The Virginian" and "Out
        Of This World".  He died of lung cancer aged 59.
          {Backwards, Legion}

  Monroe, Marilyn:  (1926-1962)  American actress and sex symbol.  Best-
        known films include "How To Marry A Millionaire" (1953), 
        "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" (1953), "The Seven Year Itch" (1955) 
        and "Some Like It Hot" (1959).
          {Better Than Life, The Last Day, Meltdown}

  Moss Bro(ther)s:  Clothing/suit hire establishment.
          {Future Echoes, Emohawk: Polymorph II}

  Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus:  (1756-1791)  Austrian genius composer, and 
        virtuoso piano and violin player.
          {Balance Of Power, Confidence And Paranoia}

  Munchkin:  One of the little people in the American film "The Wizard 
        Of Oz" (1939) starring Judy Garland.  From the novels by L. Frank
          {Confidence And Paranoia, Parallel Universe}

  Napoleon (Bonaparte):  (1769-1821)  Born at Ajaccio on the island of 
        Corsica.  General, dictator and Emperor of the French (as 
        Napoleon I; 1804-1814).
          {Me^2, Better Than Life, Marooned, Meltdown}

  Patton, George Smith:  (1885-1945)  American general during World War 
          {Marooned, The Last Day, Legion}

  Pythagoras:  (c.580-500 BC)  Greek philosopher and mathematician.
          {The End, Meltdown}

  Saint Francis of Assisi:  (1182-1226)  Founder of the Franciscan Friars.
        All-round animal lover (healing the sick ones and taming the wild 
        ones) and patron saint of ecologists. 
          {Backwards, Meltdown, Holoship}

  Samaritans:  Telephone suicide counsellors (group established in Great 
        Britain in 1953).  The name derives from the sect Samaritans, 
        inhabitants of the area of northern Israel called Samaria.  See 
        also from the Bible, the parable of the Good Samaritan (Luke 
          {The Last Day, The Inquisitor}

  Sancerre:  Dry white wine derived from Sauvignon Blanc.
          {Marooned, Rimmerworld}

  Sartre, Jean-Paul:  (1905-1980)  French writer/philosopher, apparently
        with a penchant for poncing around in black polo-neck sweaters...
          {Balance Of Power, Meltdown}

  Shakespeare, William:  (1564-1616)  English dramatist (actor and
        playwright) and poet.
          {Waiting For God, Parallel Universe, Marooned, D.N.A.}

  Sinclair ZX81:  Computer named for Clive Sinclair (1940-  ), inventive 
        British electronics engineer.  Both the Sinclair ZX81 and ZX80
        became available in 1980, and were the first sub-UKP100 computers.
          {Stasis Leak, Psirens}

  Taj Mahal:  White marble mausoleum in Agra, India.  Built in the mid-
        1600s by Shah Jahan in memory of his favourite wife.
          {Me^2, Justice}

  Third Reich:  Nazi Germany under Hitler's dictatorship.
          {Backwards, Timeslides, Meltdown}

% Topic Bar:  Chocolate bar with fondant and 'a hazelnut in every bite' 
%       (this phrase was used as an advertising slogan for Topics).  
%         {Stasis Leak, Marooned}

  Wayne, John:  (1907-1979)  The Duke.  American actor most popularly 
        known for his roles in Western films (winning an Oscar for "True 
        Grit", 1969).
          {Better Than Life, Meltdown}


        THE TV SHOW


  Mary, Queen of Scots:  (1542-1587)  Queen of Scotland 1542-1567.  
        Executed on the orders of Elizabeth I of England.  Her son James 
        VI of Scotland later became James I of Great Britain.

  Pythagoras Theorem:  The square of the hypotenuse of a right-angle 
        triangle is equal to the sum of the squares of its other two 
        sides.  You will be tested.

  **  The song Lister is humming at the beginning:  "If I Only Had A 
        Brain" from the movie "The Wizard Of Oz" (1939), starring Judy 

  **  The flag on McIntyre's funeral canister:  The flag of Wales -- the
        Red Dragon of Cadwallader over a green and white background.

  **  The song played at McIntyre's funeral:  "See You Later Alligator",
        an early rock 'n' roll song (1956).  Recorded by Bill Haley And 
        The Comets.

  **  The song the Cat is singing:  "Me And My Shadow"; has been 
        performed by several artists over the years, including Frank
        Sinatra and Judy Garland.  Can be heard in the 1981 British
        movie "Time Bandits", starring John Cleese and Sean Connery.


  Teasy-Weasy:  A hairdresser, of course.  Here's hoping they're better 
        at it than Holly is.

  Filofax:  Personal organiser.  For those not important enough to warrant 
        having a secretary.

  Lennon, John:  (1940-1980)  Singer, songwriter and rhythm guitarist 
        with The Beatles.

  McCartney, Paul:  (1942-  )  Singer, songwriter and rhythm/bass 
        guitarist with The Beatles.

  Green Beret:  Crack military group, Special Forces of the US Army.  In
        1961, the best of the Special Forces were granted the honorific
        "Green Beret" by President Kennedy.

  Shapiro, Helen:  (1946-  )  British singer and actress.  Famous for 
        having a hit single at the age of 14, and for wearing bouffant 
        hair.  ;-)

  Ladybird Books:  Information books on a level for children.

  Starlight Ballroom:  Club in Las Vegas.

  **  The song Lister is singing at the beginning:  A spaced-up version of
        "My Darling Clementine".

  **  The song Talkie Toaster is singing:  "Fly Me To The Moon", recorded
        by Frank Sinatra.

  **  The tune Rimmer is humming as he contemplates Lister's demise:  The 
        "Death March Of Saul" (1738) by the German composer George 
        Frideric Handel.

  **  Rimmer's second hairstyle:  Holly has made him into a Beatles 


  Juno:  Roman goddess of women and childbirth and wife of Jupiter, chief
        of the gods.

  Mendelssohn, Felix:  (1809-1847)  German composer, pianist and 

  Motorhead:  British heavy metal band.

  Boyle, Robert:  (1627-1691).  British chemist who made quantitative 
        studies of gases, enabling him to formulate Boyle's Law of Gases.
        Of course, he may also have made study of the dangers of eating 
        greasy food...


        PARALLEL  --  The play "Waiting For Godot" (1952) by Samuel 
  Beckett, about two tramps trapped by delusion, ignorance and hope in 
  the form of waiting for a mysterious someone called Godot.

  Hugo, Victor:  (1802-1885)  French novelist.  Best-known books include
        "Notre-Dame De Paris" (The Hunchback Of Notre Dame -- 1831) and 
        "Les Miserables" (1862).

  Galileo (Galilei):  (1564-1642)  Italian physicist, mathematician, 
        astronomer and developer of the astronomical telescope.

  Edison, Thomas Alva:  (1847-1931)  American scientist and prolific 
        inventor (inventions included the phonograph and the lightbulb).

  Columbo:  Scruffy detective played by Peter Falk (1927-  ) in the 
        American TV series/movies of the same name.  Not to be confused 
        with Christopher Columbus (1451-1506), the Italian explorer who 
        discovered America (1492), and generally was believed to dress 
        quite nicely (except when portrayed in the movies by Gerard 

  Bermuda Triangle:  Area of the Atlantic Ocean (roughly bounded by the 
        southern USA coast, Bermuda, and the Greater Antilles) in which 
        more than 70 ships and aeroplanes have allegedly disappeared.  
        Alien abductions constitute a favourite 'explanation' for these 
        supposed disappearances.

  **  "I toast, therefore I am.":  Variation on the "I think, therefore 
        I am" principle by Rene Descartes.

  **  "You might get some squiggly, slimy thing stuck to your face!":  In
        the movie "Alien" (1979) starring Sigourney Weaver and John Hurt,
        this is precisely what happened to Hurt's character Kane when he 
        went off investigating alien 'eggs'.  

  **  The music that plays as Lister enters the Cat 'cathedral':  Toccata
        and Fugue in g minor, by the German composer Johann Sebastian Bach.


  Keegan, Kevin:  (1951-  )  British (former) footballer; now manager of
        the team Newcastle United. 

  Christie, Agatha:  (1890-1976)  British writer, author of more than 70
        detective novels.

  Poirot, Hercule:  Belgian detective character in several Agatha Christie

  Beethoven, Ludwig van:  (1770-1827)  German composer, conductor and 
        pianist; continued composing even after being afflicted with 
        deafness in 1801.

  **  Jim in the movie Lister is watching:  Perhaps not surprisingly, 
        sounds very like the American actor James Stewart (1908-  ), star
        of the movie "It's A Wonderful Life" (1946).

  **  "Hercule Poirot's just stepped off the steaming train.  And if you 
        want my opinion, I think they all did it.":  Holly is reading 
        Agatha Christie's "Murder On The Orient Express" (1934).  The 
        Orient Express is the train in question.  And Holly is on the case
        and kicking bottom -- they *did* all do it.

  **  "In space, no one can hear you cha-cha-cha...":  The movie "Alien" 
        (1979), starring Sigourney Weaver and John Hurt, had as its cinema
        publicity tag "In space, no one can hear you scream."


  Kama-Sutra:  Textbook on erotics and other forms of human pleasure.  
        Named after Indian god of love (Kama).

  Blu-Tack:  Sticky substance used for attaching posters to walls (for 
        those for whom chewing-gum doesn't quite do the trick).

  G & E drawing:  Geometric and Engineering Drawing.  A GCSE subject, also
        known as Technical Drawing (or Mechanical and Engineering Drawing
        at "O" Level).
  NorWEB:  North West Electricity Board.

  Welles, Orson:  (1915-1985)  American actor, director, writer and 
        producer.  Notable works include the 1938 "War Of The Worlds" 
        radio broadcast, and the movie "Citizen Kane" (1941) which won 
        him an Oscar for Original Screenplay.

  Pluto's moon:  Charon.  Named after the ferryman on the River Styx in 
        the underworld (Hades) in Greek mythology.

  **  Close-up of Rimmer's mouth as he utters his dying words "Gazpacho 
        soup!", his outstretched hand, and the breaking of the globe 
        containing Red Dwarf:  Reminiscent of the opening scene of 
        "Citizen Kane" (1941) starring Orson Welles, in which Kane 
        (Welles) in close-up utters his dying words "Rose bud", then drops
        from his outstretched hand a snow-globe which shatters on the 

  **  The gag glasses Holly is wearing:  Patterned after Groucho Marx 
        (1890-1977), American comedy actor.

  **  The salute that Lister performs at the end:  A Boy Scout salute.


        PARALLEL  --  The play "The Admirable Crichton" (1902) by J.M. 
  Barrie.  Made into a film (1957) starring Kenneth More.  A nobleman and
  his family are shipwrecked, and the manservant (Crichton) proves his 

  Gwenlyn, Kylie:  Producer and director of "Androids", whose surname is 
        also used by Lister as an insult.  Named after a producer, and 
        former head of comedy at the BBC, Gareth Gwenlan.  (See also 

  Champion The Wonder Horse:  Champion was the horse of American cowboy
        singer/actor Gene Autry.  From 1955-1956 Champion was the star
        of a CBS children's show called "The Adventures Of Champion".
        This show starred Barry Curtis as 12 year old Ricky North, who
        was always getting into serious scrapes and being rescued by his
        Wonder Horse, Champion, and his faithful German shepherd dog
        called Rebel.

  Clive of India:  Robert, Baron Clive of Passey (1725-1774).  British 
        soldier/administrator who established British rule in India.  
        Governor of Bengal.

  The Wild One:  (1954)  American film about hoodlum motorcyclists who 
        terrorise a small town.  Starring Marlon Brando and Lee Marvin.

  Easy Rider:  (1969)  American film about two drop-out motorcyclists.  
        Starring Dennis Hopper, Peter Fonda and Jack Nicholson.

  Rebel Without A Cause:  (1955)  American film about a troubled/
        troublesome poor little rich boy.  Starring James Dean and 
        Natalie Wood.

  **  Androids:  Parody of the Australian soap opera "Neighbours", which 
        starred for a time the Australian actress/singer *Kylie* Minogue 
        (recently seen in the movie "Streetfighter", 1995, with Jean-
        Claude Van Damme).  The lines "Androids, everybody needs good 
        androids" and "Androids have feelings too" of the "Androids" theme
        song mimic the lines "Neighbours, everybody needs good neighbours"
        and "That's when good neighbours become good friends" of the 
        "Neighbours" theme song.  One thing though -- if the androids are
        supposed to have Australian accents, Ms. Gwenlyn went too far east
        because they sound more like New Zealanders (though still wide of
        that mark, too!) than Australians.

  **  The song the Cat sings when going off to prepare to meet the Nova 5 
        crew:  Only two words "Twenty-four hours!" but definitely the 
        tune of "Twenty-Four Hours From Tulsa".  Recorded by Gene Pitney.

  **  The book Lister is reading in the Blue Midget cockpit:  A 
        children's book from the "Spot" (a dog) series, by Eric Hill.

  **  "I serve, therefore I am.":  Variation on "I think, therefore I am" 
        by Rene Descartes.

  **            Rimmer:  "What are you rebelling against?"
                Kryten:  "Whaddya got?"
        Lines from the movie "The Wild One" (1954) starring Marlon Brando 
        as Johnny, leader of the Black Rebels Motorcycle Club, and wearer
        of leather (a la Kryten as he prepares to leave Red Dwarf on 
        Lister's space-bike).
                Girl:  "Hey Johnny, what are you rebelling against?"
                Johnny:  "Whaddya got?"  


  Berni Inn:  A chain of steak-house restaurants.

  Pinky and Perky:  Two falsetto-voiced singing puppet piglets on the 
        1950s-1960s BBC (later ITV) children's show "Pinky And Perky"
        (created by Jan and Vlasta Dalibor).

  Blind Pew:  Blind villain in the novel "Treasure Island" (1883) by 
        Robert Louis Stevenson.

  Friday The Thirteenth:  Nine movies to date, about this deathly date.  
        Horror movies in which teenagers meet their deaths in a variety of 
        ways at the hands of the unkillable Jason.  It's just surprising 
        that in Lister's time they're only up to Part 1649.

  Beardsley, Peter:  (1961-  )  British footballer, captain of Newcastle 

  Philistines:  A 12th century non-Semitic race of people.  The name has 
        become synonymous with one who is uncivilised in artistic and 
        intellectual terms.

  Venus:  Armless statue of the Roman goddess of love.  Currently in the 
        Louvre, Paris.

  Shields, Brooke:  (1965-  )  American actress and former child model.  
        Best-known roles in "Pretty Baby" (1978), "The Blue Lagoon" (1980)
        and "Endless Love" (1981).

  Fitzgerald, (Francis) Scott:  (1896-1940)  American writer, author of 
        the novel "The Great Gatsby" (1925).

  Outland Revenue:  Presumably what the Inland Revenue Service will become 
        once humankind moves off into space.

  Geldof:  Presumably named after ("Sir") Bob Geldof (1954-  ), lead singer
        of the former band Boomtown Rats (best-known song "I Don't Like
        Mondays"); later solo artist and sometime-actor.  Also humanitarian,
        co-organiser of Live Aid 1985, and Nobel Prize nominee.

  Mount Sinai:  Where Moses received the Ten Commandments from God.

  Mary Magdalene:  Allegedly sinful woman, and follower of Jesus after she 
        was cured by Him of possession by evil spirits.  The first person 
        to meet Jesus after the Resurrection.

  Hefner, Hugh:  (1926-  )  American publisher, and founder of "Playboy" 
        magazine (1953).

  **            Holly:  "Of all the space-bars in all the worlds, you had 
                  to rematerialise in mine."
        Line from the definitive version of "Casablanca" (starring Myra 
        Binglebat and Peter Beardsley) which mimics a line in the original
        version (1942) starring Humphrey Bogart as Rick.
                Rick:  "Of all the gin-joints in all the towns in all the 
                  world, she walks into mine."

  **  The motorcycle Lister wishes for in the game Better Than Life:  A 
        Harley Davidson.

  **  Rimmer's cars in the game Better Than Life:  In order of appearance,
        a Reliant Robin, an E-Type Jaguar and a Morris Minor.


  Shake 'N' Vac:  A carpet-deodorising powder which is shaken onto a 
        carpet and which releases an odour-killing fragrance when the 
        carpet is vacuumed.

  Odor Eaters:  Shoe inserts which will absorb/eliminate foot odour or 
        your money back.

  Osmond, (Little) Jimmy:  (1963-  )  Youngest of the singing Osmond 
        family from Utah, having a successful solo career at age nine.  
        Best-known song "Long-Haired Lover From Liverpool".

  From Here To Eternity:  (1953)  American film about love and frustration 
        set in the time of the bombing of Pearl Harbor.  Starring Burt 
        Lancaster and Deborah Kerr.  Contains the famous scene of 
        Lancaster and Kerr kissing on the beach (yes they are wearing 
        swimsuits) while the waves break over them.

  Mantovani:  (1905-1980)  Italian-born violinist, composer and conductor.

  Godzilla:  Japanese movie monster, star of several "Godzilla Versus..." 

  Johnson's Baby Bud:  A wad of cotton on a stick, the most romantic thing
        that Rimmer has ever had in his ear.

  **  The song Rimmer is singing:  "Someone To Watch Over Me" -- written
        by George and Ira Gershwin; recently recorded by Linda Ronstadt.

  **  The music Rimmer is humming while exercising:  "Peter And The Wolf" 
        (1936) by the Russian composer Sergei Prokofiev.

  **            Lister:  "Well play it, Sam."
        In the movie "Casablanca" (1942), Sam (Dooley Wilson; 1894-1953) is 
        the piano player in Rick's (Humphrey Bogart) Cafe Americain.  Rick 
        wants Sam to play the tune "As Time Goes By", and is often 
        erroneously 'quoted' as having said "Play it again, Sam."
                Rick:  "Play it!"
        Alternatively (but less often mimicked), it may be Ingrid Bergman
        (as Ilsa) that Lister is imitating.  When Ilsa first comes to 
        Rick's cafe, she asks Sam to play the tune...
                Ilsa:  "Play it once Sam.  <...>  Play it Sam."


  Kendall, Felicity:  (1946-  )  British actress (seen in the sit-com 
        "The Good Life") having a much-admired derriere -- once voted Rear
        Of The Year.

  Planet Of The Apes:  (1968)  American movie about a futuristic Earth 
        society composed of highly-evolved apes.  Starring Charlton Heston 
        and Roddy McDowall.

  Gone With The Wind:  (1939)  American movie about love during the 
        American Civil War.  Starring Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh.  A 
        run-time of three hours and forty minutes.

  Agoraphobia:  Fear of open spaces.

  Box of Daz:  Heavy-duty clothes-washing powder.

  Cartland, Barbara:  (1904-  )  British romantic novelist.

  Purley:  Part of London.

  Come Jiving:  Perhaps a later version of the dance competition "Come 

  Captain Paxo:  Paxo is a British brand of chicken stuffing.

  Newton-John, Olivia:  (1948-  )  British-born Australian singer and 
        actress.  Best-known movie role as Sandy in "Grease" (1978) with 
        John Travolta.  Songs include "Banks Of The Ohio", "You're The 
        One That I Want" (duet with John Travolta), "Magic" and 

  Run For Your Wife:  1980s play, written by Ray Cooney.  Stars included
        Jack Smethurst and David McCallum.

  **  Attack Of The Killer Gooseberries:  Perhaps a future film to be made
        in the style of "Attack Of The Killer Tomatoes" (1978).


        PARALLEL  --  From the novel "The Caine Mutiny" (1951) by Herman 
  Wouk.  The book tells the story of the incompetent sea-captain, Phillip
  Queeg, whose crew eventually mutinies and takes command from him.  Made 
  into a film in 1954, starring Humphrey Bogart in the Oscar-nominated 
  role of Queeg.

  Tess Of The D'Urbervilles:  (1891)  Novel about the seduction (and its 
        consequences) of a peasant girl.  Written by Thomas Hardy.

  Hardy, Robert:  (1925-  )  British actor, well-known for his portrayal 
        of Siegfried in the TV series "All Creatures Great And Small".

  Deganwy:  Region of Wales.

  Tottenham Hotspur:  English football club.

  Butlins:  A family holiday-camp establishment with a bit of a reputation
        for being 'inadequate'.

  Subbuteo:  Mini table-football game.

  **  Rimmer cheering himself on during the draughts game:  Imitative of
        the style of English football supporters.

  **            Holly:  "This is mutiny Mr. Queeg.  I'll see you swing 
                  from the highest yardarm in Titan Docking Port for this 
                  day's work."
        Parallel of lines attributed to Captain William Bligh of the HMS 
        Bounty; said to the master's mate Fletcher Christian, when 
        Christian led the mutiny on the Bounty in 1789.  Several versions 
        of the lines exist.  From the book "Mutiny On The Bounty" (1932) 
        by Charles Nordhoff and James Hall...
                Bligh (to Christian):  "You mutinous dog!  I'll see you 
                  hung  <..>  I'll see you swinging from a yardarm before 
                  two years have passed!"
        From the film "Mutiny On The Bounty" (1935) starring Charles 
        Laughton as Bligh and Clark Gable as Christian...
                Bligh (to Christian):  "I'll live to see you -- all of 
                  you -- hanging from the highest yardarm in the British 

  **  The song Holly sings as he goes to challenge Queeg:  "High Noon (Do
        Not Forsake Me)" recorded by Frankie Laine.  Oscar-winning song
        (aka "Do Not Forsake Me Oh My Darlin'") sung in the western "High
        Noon" (1952; starring Gary Cooper and Grace Kelly) by Tex Ritter.

  **  The song Holly sings before he is 'erased':  "Goodbye To Love", 
        recorded by The Carpenters.


  Mesmer, Friedrich Anton:  (1734-1815)  Austrian physician who 
        experimented with hypnosis (formerly called mesmerism).

  Sandwich, (4th) Earl of (John Montagu):  (1718-1792)  British politician 
        who, in order not to interrupt his card-playing, developed the 
        habit of eating beef between two slices of toast, and thus 
        invented the sandwich. 

  Morse, Samuel:  (1791-1872)  American inventor who greatly improved the 
        electric telegraph and (with assistant Alexander Bain) invented 
        Morse code.

  Plato:  (c.428-347 BC)  Ancient Greek philosopher.

  Ringo (Starr):  (1940-  )  Drummer with the Beatles.

  I'm A Yankee Doodle Dandy:  Song by vaudevillian George M. Cohan.

  Miranda, Carmen:  (1909-1955)  Portuguese singer and dancer with a 
        penchant for extravagant costumes, most notably a headdress made 
        of fruit.

  **  Armstrong, Nellie:  Female universe equivalent of Neil Armstrong 
        (1930-  ), the first man on the moon (July 20, 1969).

  **  The Male Eunuch, by Jeremy Greer:  The female universe equivalent
        of "The Female Eunuch" (1970) by Germaine Greer (1939-  ).

  **  Rachel III; The Taming Of The Shrimp -- both by Wilma Shakespeare:  
        Female universe equivalents of William Shakespeare's plays 
        "Richard III" and "The Taming Of The Shrew".

  **  "I'm off to see the Wizard, the wonderful Wizard of Oz!":  Line 
        from the title song of the movie "The Wizard Of Oz" (1939) 
        starring Judy Garland.


        PARALLEL  --  The opening scroll and its musical accompaniment, 
  akin to those in the movie "Star Wars" (1977) starring Mark Hamill, 
  Harrison Ford and Carrie Fisher.

  The Flintstones:  Indisputably-classic cartoon from Hanna-Barbera, 
        about two Bedrock suburban couples (Fred and Wilma Flintstone, and
        Barney and Betty Rubble).

  Muggins:  Slang meaning 'simpleton'.

  Genghis Khan:  (c.1167-1227)  Mongol conqueror and great military 
        leader.  Ruler of all Mongol peoples, across a vast empire ranging
        from the Yellow Sea (China/Korea) to the Black Sea (south-east 
        Europe), from 1206.

  ICI:  Imperial Chemical Industries, one of the largest companies of 

  **  "Or a herd of flesh-eating dinosaurs feeding off the bones of Doug 
        McClure?":  McClure made several 'dinosaur' movies, including 
        "The Land That Time Forgot" (1975) and its sequel, "The People 
        That Time Forgot" (1977).

  **  The man sucking smoke out of the air and putting it into his
        cigarette:  Is Rob Grant.

  **  The mask Kryten is wearing:  Ronald Reagan (1911-  )  Former 
        Hollywood actor, and 40th President (Republican) of the USA 


  Sindy:  Girls' doll, more middle-class than Barbie.

  Birdseye:  Frozen food company, products include frozen fish-fingers 
        and packets of small garden peas.

  Newcastle Brown:  Beer -- Newcastle Brown Ale.

  Alexander The Great:  (356-323 BC)  King of Macedonia and conqueror of 
        the Persian Empire.

  Shrove Tuesday (Christian):  The day before the beginning of Lent.

  Ascension (Sunday?):  Ascension Thursday is the feast day commemorating
        Christ's ascension into Heaven.

  Pentecost (Christian):   The day the Apostles experienced inspiration 
        by the Holy Spirit.  Commemorated on Whit Sunday.

  Lamb, Charles:  (1775-1834)  British essayist and critic.

  Wouk, Herman:  (1915-  )  American novelist, and winner of the Pulitzer
        Prize (1952) for "The Caine Mutiny" (1951); more recent novels 
        include "The Winds Of War" (1971) and "War And Remembrance"

  Bacon, Sir Francis:  (1561-1626)  English politician, philosopher and 

  Lustbader, Eric (Van):  ([?]-  )  American novelist, and music 
        industry influence (eg. introduced Elton John to the American 
        music scene).

  Pinter, Harold:  (1930-  )  British dramatist and former actor.  Author
        of "The Caretaker" (1960).

  Richard, (Sir) Cliff:  (1940-  )  Enduring British pop singer and 
        sometime actor.  And I still can't believe that "Wired For Sound"
        only made it to No. 132 on the US charts.  Philistines!  ;-)

  Bootle:  Town near Liverpool, England.

  Ryder Cup:  Golf tournament for professional men's teams from the USA 
        and Europe; played biennially.  Begun in 1926, and named after
        Samuel Ryder ([?]).

  Lewis':  Department store.  So we know Michelle Fisher was *beautiful*
        enough to get a job behind the perfume counter, but was she also
        vicious enough?  I mean, that killer ability to leap out and
        spray customers with perfume as they pass the counter...that can
        only come from *instinct*, not training.

  Biggles:  Flying ace character in the books by Captain W.E. Johns.

  West Side Story:  American musical.  Film (1961) starring Natalie Wood  
        and Richard Beymer.  Based on William Shakespeare's play "Romeo 
        And Juliet" but transferred to the contemporary setting of gang
        feuding in the New York docklands.

  Lolita:  (1955)  Best-known novel of the Russian writer Vladimir 
        Nabokov, it tells the story of a middle-aged man's obsession with 
        a 12 year old girl.

  Islington:  Area of London.

  Paul, Les:  (1915-1995)  American guitarist and inventor.

  **  The song Lister plays on his guitar:  "She's Out Of My Life", 
        recorded by Michael Jackson.

  **  The tune Rimmer trumpets as his soldiers burn:  The military send-
        off "The Last Post".

  **  "Au revoir mes amis, a bientot.":  Farewell my friends, see you 
        soon (French).


  The Three Musketeers:  (1844)  Novel by French writer Alexandre Dumas 
        (pere).  The musketeers were Athos, Porthos and Aramis, with 
        D'Artagnan as a fourth.

  Osmond family:  Family of singing Mormons; the seven children all had 
        (have) successful singing careers for a time, especially Donny, 
        Marie and (Little) Jimmy.  The Osmonds were recognised as much 
        for their big cheesy grins (with perfect teeth) as for their 

  **  The eight-foot tall, armour-plated killing machine:  Bears an 
        *uncanny* resemblance to the creature from the movie "Alien" 
        (1979) starring Sigourney Weaver and John Hurt.


  Hitchcock, Alfred:  (1899-1980)  Producer/director lauded for his style
        of movie-making, combining suspense, humour and romance.  Films 
        include "The Thirty-Nine Steps" (1935), "Dial M For Murder" (1954)
        and "The Birds" (1963).  A portly man, Hitchcock also hosted an 
        anthology TV series called "Alfred Hitchcock Presents"; his 
        'trademark' was his body silhouette in profile.

  Atlas, Charles:  (1893-1972)  American bodybuilder and founder of the
        mail-order bodybuilding course.  The original weakling who turned
        to bodybuilding after a lifeguard kicked sand on him at the beach
        and stole his girlfriend.

  Goodyear:  Tyre company known for floating advertising blimps over major
        sporting events.

  Mr. Spock:  The half-Vulcan, half-human Science Officer on the Starship
        Enterprise in the original "Star Trek" series; also appearing in 
        the later "Star Trek" movies.  Played by Leonard Nimoy (1931-  ).
        I suppose the logical question to ask now is: Is his urine really
        green?  (How sad that I am asking that question.  How much sadder
        though that someone, somewhere, probably knows the answer!)

  Super Bowl:   Post-season championship game for American football.

  Grimsby:  Aptly-named, northern industrialised 'seaside' town by the 
        River Humber on the east coast of England.

  **  "I look like Captain Emerald!":  Perhaps a descendant of Captain 
        Scarlet, title character from the British (Supermarionation) TV 
        series "Captain Scarlet And The Mysterons", done by Gerry Anderson
        (of "Thunderbirds" and "Terrahawks" fame) in 1967-1968.  Rimmer's 
        uniform (in particular, his hat) is strongly modelled on the 
        uniform of Captain Scarlet.

  **  The song Rimmer (in Lister's body) is humming as he prepares to go
        to the toilet:  "The Grand Old Duke Of York."

  **  The music playing as Rimmer (in Lister's body) leaves Red Dwarf in
        Starbug:  The "Light Cavalry Overture" (1866) by the Austro-
        Italian composer Franz von Suppe.

  **            Lister:  "Go ahead punks!  Make my day!"  
        Parallel of lines spoken and terms used by Clint Eastwood as 
        Dirty Harry Callahan in eg. "Sudden Impact" (1983)...
                Dirty Harry:  "Go ahead.  Make my day."


  Nuremberg:  German city, site of (1933-1938) the German Nazi Party 
        rallies, and of Nazi war criminal trials (1945-1946).

  Stauffenberg, Claus von:  (1907-1944)  German colonel who attempted to 
        assassinate Hitler via a bomb planted in Hitler's headquarters' 
        conference room at Rastenburg in East Prussia, July 1944 (see 
        also the PIP).  Hitler had von Stauffenberg executed for his 

  Hoffman, Dustin:  (1937-  )  American stage and screen actor.  Films 
        include "The Graduate" (1967), "Kramer Vs. Kramer" (1979), 
        "Tootsie" (1982) and "Rainman" (1988, for which he won his second
        Best Actor Oscar).  Stage/TV work includes "Death Of A Salesman".

  Ishtar:  (1987)  Absolute bomb of a movie about two hapless singer/
        songwriters, starring Dustin Hoffman and Warren Beatty.

  Freemasons:  Free and Accepted Masons.  The largest worldwide secret 
        society, evolved from stonemasons and cathedral builders guilds 
        of the Middle Ages.

  Buckingham Palace:  The Queen's place.

  Xanadu:  Charles Foster Kane's mega-mansion in the movie "Citizen Kane"
        (1941), starring Orson Welles as Kane.

  Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick And Tich:  A 1960s UK beat group, originally
        known as Dave Dee And The Bostons.  The members were vocalist Dave
        Dee (1943-  ), bassist Trevor "Dozy" Davies (1944-  ), rhythm
        guitarist John "Beaky" Dymond (1944-  ), drummer Mick Wilson 
        (1944-  ) and lead guitarist Ian "Tich" Amey (1944-  ).  The group
        had a Number One hit in 1966 with "Legend Of Xanadu".

  Swiftian:  Descriptive of the type of satire in which outrageous 
        statements are offered in a straight-faced manner.  Named after 
        the Irish-born British satirist Jonathan Swift (1667-1745), author
        of "Gulliver's Travels" (1726).

  **  The music that Kryten is dancing to while developing his first lot
        of photographs:  "Bad News", a song written and performed by 
        Craig Charles (with his band, The Sons Of Gordon Gekko -- see
        also below).  This song does have lyrics, including "Bad news,
        I got bad news; I said, I got no money for my fags and my booze"
        with the instrumental bit heard either part of the lead break 
        between choruses (vocal version), or part of the instrumental

  **  "We could go to Dallas, in November 1963, stand on the grassy knoll
        and shout 'Duck!'.":  Reference to the assassination of John 
        F(itzgerald) Kennedy, 35th President of the USA (1961-1963, 
        Democrat), who was shot and killed at this place and time, by 
        (officially accepted) Lee Harvey Oswald.

  **  Lifestyles Of The Disgustingly Rich And Famous:  Obviously a TV show 
        for those who are just too well off to go on "Lifestyles Of The 
        Rich And Famous".

  **  The song playing as Lister arrives at Xanadu:  "Cash" by Craig 
        Charles's band The Sons Of Gordon Gekko, named after Michael 
        Douglas's character in the movie "Wall Street" (1987).

  **  The music playing before Lister and Sabrina Mulholland-Jjones are
        served their meals:  From the concerto "Four Seasons (Spring)" 
        (c.1725) by Italian composer Antonio Vivaldi.
  **  The song Rimmer sings after he leaves the photo of his boarding 
        school dormitory:  "If I Were A Rich Man" from the stage musical 
        "Fiddler On The Roof" by Joseph Stein (movie, 1971, starring 


  Brigitte Nielsen:  (1963-  )  Danish actress and singer more famous for 
        her breast implants, and for being the former wife of Sylvester 
        Stallone, than for her acting or singing.  Movies include "Red 
        Sonja" (1985), "Cobra" (1986) and "Beverly Hills Cop 2" (1987).

  Action Man:  Boys' toy, a doll in the style of G.I. Joe.

  Vimto:  Brand of British soft drink, bought as a concentrate and diluted
        with water.  Also comes (less commonly) in carbonated form.

  Eiffel Tower:  Famous Parisian landmark named after and constructed by
        the French engineer Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923), for the Paris 
        Exhibition of 1889.

  Montmartre:  Area of Paris ville.

  Pollock, Jackson:  (1912-1956)  American painter.  Developer of the 
        painting style known as 'action painting' (1946).  Also a pioneer 
        of Abstract Expressionism.  (Or put more simply, paintings that 
        look like vomit.)

  **  "The iron shall lie down with the lamp.":  Parallel of passages in
        the Bible dealing with lions and lambs coexisting as friends and
        not enemies.  The wording of the passages varies depending on the 
        Bible version, but the relevant verses are Isaiah 11:6 and Isaiah

  **  The music playing before 'the morning after':  "Morning Mood" (from 
        "Peer Gynt", 1876) by the Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg.

  **  The song Hudzen 10 is singing:  "Goodbyee" (composed by Weston/Lee).
        Blackadder fans can hear a nice rendition of this song by Bob 
        Parkhurst (Gabrielle Glaister) in the episode "Major Star" of 
        "Blackadder Goes Forth".  And that's probably the most gratuitous
        sentence in this document, but what's one more, eh? 


        PARALLEL  --  The movie "Casablanca" (1942).  Rick (Humphrey 
  Bogart) must choose between holding on to the woman he loves (Ilsa, 
  played by Ingrid Bergman) or sending her away with her husband (Victor 
  Laszlo, played by Paul Henreid) for the ultimate good of both Ilsa and

  Nelson, Horatio:  (1758-1805)  British (naval, as opposed to Space 
        Corps!) admiral.  During the French Revolutionary Wars he lost 
        the sight of his right eye (1794), and lost his right arm in 1797.

  Tales Of The Riverbank:  A Canadian series narrated by Johnny Morris,
        this was a children's show about the adventures of a community 
        of animals living by a riverbank.  The show put real animals 
        in highly anthropomorphised settings and situations.  The
        star of the original show was Hammy Hamster.  Presumably the show
        Lister was watching was a followup to the original "Tales", in 
        the style of "The Next Generation" (a la "Star Trek").

  St. Elsewhere:  American hospital drama series of the mid-to-late 1980s,
        starring Denzel Washington and Ed Begley, Jr.  Emphasis on realism 
        and not always a 'happy ever after' ending.

  Spiderman:  Comic and cartoon superhero, born when reporter Peter Parker 
        was bitten by a radioactive spider.  Created by Stan Lee in the 
        early 1960s.

  Valkyrie:  One of the nine virgin semidivine priestesses of Freya 
        (goddess of love and beauty) in Norse mythology.  

  Malden, Karl:  (1914-  )  American actor with a distinctive bulbous 
        nose.  Most famous roles include the movie "A Streetcar Named 
        Desire" (1951; for which he won an Oscar), the TV series "The 
        Streets Of San Francisco" (mid-1970s, first with Michael Douglas
        and later with Richard Hatch), and the commercials for American
        Express ("Don't leave home without it").

  The Blob:  (1958)  American movie starring Steve McQueen, in which the 
        people of a small town are terrorised by an invading blob from 

  McQueen, Steve:  (1930-1980)  American actor.  Best known movie roles 
        in "The Blob" (1958), "The Magnificent Seven" (1960), "The Great
        Escape" (1963), "Papillon" (1973) and "The Towering Inferno" 

  **  (Nelson) "I see no ships.":  At the Battle of Copenhagen in 1801, 
        Nelson put a telescope up to his blind eye in order to avoid 
        seeing a signal from his commander (Sir Hyde Parker) telling him 
        to withdraw, which would have prevented Nelson from crippling 
        the Danish fleet.
                Nelson's remark at the Battle:  "I have only one eye --
                  I have a right to be blind sometimes...I really do
                  not see the signal."

  **  At the end of "Casablanca", Humphrey Bogart lies to Victor Laszlo 
        to protect Laszlo's feelings:  Rick (Bogart) lies to Laszlo, 
        saying that Ilsa does not love him (Rick) any more, in order to 
        save Laszlo jealousy and heartache if he were to believe that his
        wife did not love him.

  **  Parrot's Bar on G-Deck:  Appears to have been modelled after the 
        Blue Parrot bar from "Casablanca", which had as decorations 
        parrot statuettes and live parrots on perches.

  **  The music playing as Kryten and Camille head out in Starbug:  "The 
        Blue Danube" (1867), a waltz by Austrian composer Johann Strauss.

  **  The song playing when Kryten and Camille are in the cinema:  They 
        are watching "Casablanca" and this song from it is called "As 
        Time Goes By".

  **  Hector, Camille's husband:  The something-that-dropped-out-of-the-
        Sphinx's-nose equivalent of Victor, Ilsa's husband, in 

  **            Camille:  "Why my bag, Kryten?"
                Kryten:  "Because you're getting on that craft with 
                  Hector, where you belong."
                Camille:  "No, Kryten."
                Kryten:  "Now you've got to listen to me.  Do you have 
                  any idea what you've got to look forward to if you stay
                Camille:  "You're saying this only to make me go."
                Kryten:  "We both know you belong to Hector -- you're 
                  part of his work, you're what keeps him going.  If 
                  you're not on that craft when it leaves the hangar, 
                  you'll regret it.  Maybe not today, maybe not tomorrow, 
                  but soon, for the rest of your life."
                Camille:  "What about us?"
                Kryten:  "We'll always have Parrot's.  <...>  I'm no good 
                  at being noble, kid, but it's pretty obvious the 
                  problems of two blobs and a droid don't amount to a hill
                  of beans in this crazy cosmos."
                Hector:  "Are you ready, Camille?"
                Camille:  "I'm ready.  Goodbye, Kryten.  And bless you."
        Lines from the airport scene in "Casablanca" where Rick is 
        convincing Ilsa to leave on the aeroplane with Victor.
                Ilsa:  "But, why my name Richard?"
                Rick:  "Because  <...>  you're getting on that plane with 
                  Victor where you belong.  <...>"  
                Ilsa:  "But Richard no, I, I...  <...>"
                Rick:  "Now you've got to listen to me.  Do you have any 
                  idea what you've got to look forward to if you stay 
                  here?  <...>"
                Ilsa:  "You're saying this only to make me go."
                Rick:  "<...>  we both know you belong with Victor, you're 
                  part of his work -- the thing that keeps him going.  If 
                  that plane leaves the ground and you're not with him, 
                  you'll regret it.  Maybe not today, maybe not tomorrow,
                  but soon and for the rest of your life."
                Ilsa:  "But what about us?"
                Rick:  "We'll always have Paris.  <...>  I'm no good at 
                  being noble but it doesn't take much to see that the 
                  problems of three little people don't amount to a hill 
                  of beans in this crazy world.  <...>"   
                Victor:  "Are you ready, Ilsa?"
                Ilsa:  "Yes I'm ready.  Goodbye Rick.  God bless you."

  **            Lister:  "Kryten, this could be the start of a beautiful 
        This line, as Lister and Kryten walk away together at the end, is 
        from the final shot of "Casablanca", where Rick and the Prefect 
        of Police, Louis (Claude Rains), walk away together across the 
        airport ground.
                Rick:  "Louis, I think this is the beginning of a 
                  beautiful friendship."


  The Bride Of Frankenstein:  (1935)  American movie starring Elsa 
        Lanchester (1902-1986) as the Bride created for Frankenstein's 
        monster.  Her hair was swept straight up stiffly a la the Cat's 
        here, though the Bride's also had a white wavy stripe up each 

  Miller, Glenn:  (1904-1944)  American trombonist, and big band leader 
        and melody arranger.  Hits included "Little Brown Jug", 
        "Pennsylvania 6-5000",  "Moonlight Serenade", "Chattanooga Choo 
        Choo" and "In The Mood".  On his way from England to France to 
        entertain troops during World War II, Miller's plane disappeared 
        without trace (probably ditched into the English Channel); 
        although a popular notion is that he was abducted by aliens with 
        a taste for swing music.

  Quantel:  Video effect whereby a sequence of footage is split into a
        series of discrete single-image frames.  Also, the manufacturers
        of a high-quality 2D painting and animation software/hardware

  Como, Perry:  (1912-  )  American singer, and sometime actor and TV 
        variety show host.  Hits included many songs from movies, such as 
        "Blue Moon" (from "Words And Music", 1958) and the No. 1 "Some 
        Enchanted Evening" (from "South Pacific", 1949).  Although, my
        hopelessly inadequate book fails utterly to mention what was 
        stashed in his slacks during the singing of "Memories Are Made Of

  Descartes, Rene:  (1596-1650)  French philosopher and mathematician.
        Famous for "I think, therefore I am" which the Red Dwarf posse 
        like to adapt to *any* given situation.  

  Popeye:  Created by E.C. Segar.  Cartoon sailor who gets a strength 
        boost from the goodness of spinach.  Also a bit of a philosopher 
        for his Popeye Principle "I am what I am."  Frequently confused 
        with Descartes.

  The Louvre:  Objets d'art museum (former palace) in Paris, home to such 
        works as the "Mona Lisa" and the "Venus De Milo".

  Nutkin:  Character created by British author Beatrix Potter.  Appearing
        in her children's book "The Tale Of Squirrel Nutkin" (1903).

  Lake Michigan:  A poppadom the size of this American lake would be 58020 
        square kilometres in area (22395 square miles).

  **            Lister:  "How can the same smeg happen to the same guy
        From the 1990 American movie "Die Hard 2: Die Harder", which had
        as its cinema publicity tag "How can the same thing happen to the
        same guy twice?!"  Starring Bruce Willis as John McClane, who 
        muses aloud as he finds himself in another basement, another
                McClane:  "How can the same shit happen to the same guy

  **  The Chomp Thing:  Not half man, half extra-hot Indian curry; but 
        half man, half plant -- this is the title character of the "Swamp 
        Thing" (1981 -- original idea from a comic book), an American film
        starring Louis Jourdan and Adrienne Barbeau.

  **  The 'Man-Plus' Lister gets turned into:  Looks *very* much like 
        the title character of the cyborg-policeman in the 1987 American 
        film "Robocop", starring Peter Weller (1947-  ), as Robocop, and 
        Nancy Allen.


  The Elephant Man:  (1862-1890)  Joseph (commonly erroneously referred 
        to as John) Merrick, a man with hideous deformities in the form of
        huge masses of bulbous flesh, thought to be the result of a rare 
        disease called Proteus syndrome.

  Ripley's Believe It Or Not:  Newspaper feature, books, and TV show in 
        which fantastic and 'unbelievable' things and/or events are 
        presented to the eager public.

  The Bengals:  American-football team -- the Cincinnati Bengals -- whose 
        players wear orange-and-black striped helmets.

  Iranian jird:  A small cute member of the rodent family, more properly 
        called the Persian jird (Meriones persicus), this animal 
        nonetheless has more discretion than Cats because if Cat's 
        statement about its sex life is true, then the jird itself 
        certainly isn't telling.

  Hess, Rudolf:  (1894-1987)  German Nazi leader -- former private 
        secretary, and later deputy Fuhrer, to Adolf Hitler.  Captured in
        England in 1941, and sentenced to life imprisonment after the 
        Nuremberg Trials, he died in Spandau Prison, Berlin.

  Crunchie bars:  Scrumdiddlyumptious chocolate-covered honeycomb bars, 
        made by Cadbury.

  Long John Silver:  One-legged, parrot-carrying, cook-wannabe pirate 
        character in Robert Louis Stevenson's adventure story "Treasure 
        Island" (1883).

  **  Florence Nightingdroid:  Presumably the mechanoid equivalent of 
        Florence Nightingale (1820-1910), the British nurse who (during 
        the Crimean War) established nursing practices that led (along 
        with her later founding of a nursing school/home in London) to 
        the revolutionising of nursing as a profession.  

  **  Barbra Bellini in her lead-lined pod:  Very probably a reference
        to a type of logic puzzle, in which a candidate must attempt
        to discern the whereabouts or not of some object placed into
        one of several caskets.  The puzzles tell of two Renaissance
        Florentine casket-makers, Bellini and Cellini.  Whenever one
        made a casket, he inscribed it with some clue to the puzzle --
        the catch was that while Bellini's inscription *always* told
        the truth, and Cellini's inscription *always* lied, the candidate
        had no way of knowing which casket had been made by which 
        craftsman.  The puzzles popularly involved choosing between a
        gold, a silver and a lead casket -- reflecting the Cat's "What
        a dilemma!" of Barbra or not in the lead(-lined) pod/casket.
        So, are we now crying out for an example of this puzzle?  Here
        is the one that FroggyGrem sent to me (and which I'm relieved to
        say I did figure out -- eventually!  Whew!)...
                Gold casket inscription:  The dagger is in this casket.
                Silver casket inscription:  This casket is empty.
                Lead casket inscription:  At most, one of these three
                  caskets was fashioned by Bellini.
        The puzzle:  Avoid choosing the dagger!

  **  "Take the Fifth!":  Meaning the broad interpretation of the Fifth 
        Amendment of the United States Constitution, which (among other 
        things) protects an individual against self-incrimination during
        legal process.  Commonly and simplistically put "I refuse to 
        answer, on the grounds that I may incriminate myself."

  **  Make my day:  Written on the simulant's gun, this line is used by 
        Dirty Harry Callahan (Clint Eastwood), eg. in "Sudden Impact" 


  Raison d'etre:  Reason for being (French).

  Ramses (or Rameses):  Name shared by 11 kings of ancient Egypt.

  Oates, Captain Laurence Edward Grace:  (1880-1912)  British Antarctic 
        explorer, one of the party accompanying Robert Falcon Scott on 
        the second expedition to the South Pole.  After reaching the Pole
        in January 1912, the party was trapped by extreme blizzards on 
        their return journey to their supply depot.  Oates, suffering 
        from severe frostbite and believing that the others would have a 
        better chance of surviving if not held back by him, went out into
        the storms for his 'legendary walk'.  His last words were recorded
        in Scott's diary (see below).

  Scott, Robert Falcon:  (1868-1912)  British naval officer and explorer 
        who led the second expedition to reach the South Pole (success in 
        January, 1912).  On the return journey all five members of the 
        party perished.  Their bodies and records were found in November 
        of that year.  Scott's diary, one of the surviving records, 
        contains the last words of Captain Oates, spoken as Oates left 
        the shelter for the last time.  As noted by Scott in the diary, 
        entry 16-17 March 1912, Oates said "I am just going outside and 
        may be some time."

  Stan and Ollie:  The American comedy acting duo Stan Laurel and Oliver 

  Hardy, Oliver:  (1892-1957)  Rotund partner in the American comedy duo 
        Laurel and Hardy (Stan Laurel was thin), who had great popular 
        success in over 200 films during the late 1920s to mid-1940s.  
        Hilarity came from how they set one another off -- Stan was the 
        worrier and bumbler, Ollie the fastidious one with the slow-
        burning temper.

  Robeson, Paul:  (1898-1976)  American bass (called baritone) singer, 
        and sometime actor.

  Aigburth Arms:  A real pub, on Victoria Road, in Aigburth -- an area of 
        (and former village outside of) Liverpool.  Though its pool table 
        allowed Lister to become the stuff of legend, this pub did not 
        always have this apparatus on which to be a Cinzano Bianco.

  **  "I toast, therefore I am.":  Variation on the "I think, therefore 
        I am" principle by Rene Descartes.


        PARALLEL  --   Music and 'heroic fighter pilot' type akin to the 
  music and theme of the movie "Top Gun" (1986), starring Tom Cruise and 
  Kelly McGillis.  The music parallels the movie's love song "Take My 
  Breath Away", by Berlin.

  Jaws:  (1975)  American movie about a man-eating shark which terrorises
        a small Long Island community.  Starring Roy Scheider, Robert 
        Shaw and Richard Dreyfuss.

  Hammond organ:  Electric organ invented in America in 1934 by Laurens
        Hammond (1895-1973).

  Morris dancing:  English folk dancing involving dressing up in belled 
        costumes and being subjected to the clonk of wood on wood; the 
        dancers' faces may also sometimes be blacked.  Possibly derived
        from the Moresca/Morisco (meaning 'Moorish'; a 15th century 
        Spanish dance) or from other Moorish (morys) dances.

  Delius, Frederick:  (1862-1934)  British composer.  Works range from
        opera and orchestral music, to chamber music and songs.

  Wagner, Richard:  (1813-1883)  German opera composer.  Works include 
        "Tristan Und Isolde" (1865) and "Parsifal" (1882).

  **  Condom fishing in the canal:  Most likely Lister is talking about 
        the Leeds Liverpool Canal, which has recently been subjected to 
        a program of urban regeneration; including the reintroduction of
        fish.  Apparently they didn't take...

  **  "We could try and hire a dance band and get them to play 'Abide 
        With Me'.":  Seeing as how Starbug is sinking, this is very 
        possibly a reference to the sinking of the RMS Titanic in the 
        North Atlantic Ocean on April 14-15, 1912, with the loss of over
        1500 lives.  The dance band played as the Titanic sank (and 
        perished along with the ship), although the hymn they are alleged
        to have played at the last was actually "Nearer My God To Thee".

  **  "Kids' TV series about a boy and his bush kangaroo.":  This would 
        be "Skippy" (1970s, starring Ed Devereaux and Tony Bonner) an 
        Australian kids' TV series about, amazingly enough, a boy and his
        bush kangaroo.  Skippy was 'our friend ever true' of the boy, 
        whose name was in fact Sonny (played by Garry Pankhurst) and 
        not Ace.

  **  Masonic handshake:  Apparent secret handshake of the Freemasons (or
        Free and Accepted Masons), the largest worldwide secret society
        (evolved from stonemasons and cathedral-builders' guilds of the 
        Middle Ages).


        PARALLEL  --  The movie "Westworld" (1973) starring Yul Brynner 
  and Richard Benjamin.  The androids of a futuristic robot theme park 
  (with sections such as the Wild West and Ancient Rome) go against their 
  programming, running amok and killing the human guests.

  Irkutsk:  Province and city of east-central Russia.

  Goebbels, Paul Josef:  (1897-1945)  German Nazi leader and minister of 
        propaganda from 1933.  Poisoned himself when Berlin fell to the 

  Presley, Elvis:  (1935-1977)  The King is (officially!) dead.  Long live 
        the King!

  Pope Gregory:  [? that is, which *one* ?].

  Tweety Pie:  Cartoon canary character created by Warner Brothers 
        Studios for their Loony Tunes series of cartoons.

  Capone, Al:  (1898-1947)  American (Chicago) gangster/mafia man, head 
        of a large criminal organisation which he had built up during the
        time of Prohibition.  Capone spent 1931-1939 in prison for tax 
        evasion.  He eventually died of syphilis.

  Mussolini, Benito:  (1883-1945)  Italian dictator and founder of the 
        Fascist Movement; ally of Hitler during World War II.

  Richard III:  (1452-1485)  King of England 1483-1485.  Last Plantagenet
        king and last English king to die on the battlefield (defeated by
        Henry Tudor at Bosworth Field).  Most famous for allegedly 
        instigating the murder of his nephews (Edward V and his brother, 
        Richard of York -- 'The Princes in the Tower'), although 
        personally *I* believe that the villain was more likely to have 
        been, say, the Duke of Buckingham (but don't get me started on 

  Last, James:  (1929-  )  German-born cabaret/dance band leader and 
        musician.  Big success in Europe.  Albums such as "Polka Party" 
        and "Violins In Love" indicate both why Rimmer likes him so much 
        and why he's in with the cream of evil on Waxworld!  ;-)

  Winnie-the-Pooh:  A bear of very little brain.  Teddy bear character 
        created (1926) by the British writer A.A. Milne; Pooh and his 
        cohorts being based on the toys of Milne's son Christopher Robin.  

  Lincoln, Abraham:  (1809-1865)  "Honest Abe", 16th President of the USA 
        (1861-5, Republican).  President during the time of the American 
        Civil War, he was concerned with preserving the Union and freeing
        the slaves.  He was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth while 
        attending a play.

  Sir Lancelot:  Best fighting knight of the Round Table fellowship, in 
        the legend of King Arthur.

  Joan Of Arc:  (c.1412-1431)  French girl who (after inspiration from 
        holy 'voices') led the French army in battles against the English,
        to free France from English domination.  Eventually captured by 
        the English, she was interrogated and tricked into admissions of 
        witchcraft; soon afterwards she was burned at the stake in Rouen.
        She was canonised in 1920.

  Day, Doris:  (1924-  )  American actress, singer and animal rights 
        activist.  Movies include "Lullaby Of Broadway" (1951), "Calamity
        Jane" (1953) and "The Pajama Game" (1957).  Best-known song 
        probably "Que Sera Sera"; oh well, what will be will be!

  Messalina:  (c.22-48)  Wife of Roman emperor Claudius I.   Promiscuous 
        and conniving, Messalina manipulated Claudius into executing poor 
        unfortunates who had displeased her in some way.  She eventually 
        received her come-uppance when she made a secret second marriage 
        while still married to Claudius (who naturally was not going to 
        stand for this, and so executed Messalina).

  Caligula:  (12-41)  Gaius Caesar.  Mentally unstable, cruel and depraved 
        Emperor of Rome (37-41).  Besides the 'excesses' mentioned by 
        Lister in this episode, Caligula ('Little Boots') also made a 
        consul of his favourite horse Incitatus.  Finally an officer of 
        the guard could stand this sort of rot no longer, and so Caligula 
        was assassinated.

  Boston Strangler:  (c.1931-1973)  Mutilating rapist who murdered 13
        women (aged 19-85) in Boston, Massachusetts, from June 1962 to
        January 1964.  His name came from his leaving of bows tied 
        around his victims' necks or legs.  In 1965 Albert de Salvo
        was arrested for lesser sexual offences; he later confessed to
        being the Boston Strangler but due to a legal technicality was
        never tried for these murders.  He was sentenced to life 
        imprisonment for his lesser crimes, but died in jail of stab
        wounds at the age of 42.

  Boone, Pat:  (1934-  )  American singer.  Songs include "Love Letters 
        In The Sand" and "Speedy Gonzales".

  Rasputin, Grigory:  (1871-1916)  'Holy' man whose rather-too-well-heeded 
        counsel to Tsarina Alexandra of Russia certainly did nothing to 
        hinder the inevitability of the Russian Revolution.  His 
        debauchery and incredible political power could not be tolerated 
        by the Russian nobles, a group of whom murdered Rasputin by 
        poisoning him, shooting him, clubbing him on the head and then 
        throwing him into the river where he finally drowned.

  Gandhi, Mohandas (Mahatma):  (1869-1948)  Pacifist Indian nationalist
        leader, pushing for Indian independence from Britain, in a non-
        violent way.  He was assassinated by a Hindu nationalist after 
        the partition of the country into India and Pakistan.

  Mother Teresa:  (1910-  )  Albanian-born Catholic nun, founder of a 
        Charity order dedicated to helping the poor and destitute of 
        India.  She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1979.

  Dalai Lama:  (1935-  )  Self-exiled (as a protest against Chinese 
        oppression) spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet.

  Victoria:  (1819-1901)  Queen of Great Britain 1837-1901.  Longest-
        reigning British monarch, and called 'Grandmother of Europe' by 
        virtue of the marriages of her nine children and their descendants
        into the royal houses of Europe.

  Coward, Noel:  (1899-1973)  British playwright, director, actor, 
        composer and producer.  Well-known play -- "Private Lives" (1930).

  The Dirty Dozen:  (1967)  American/Spanish movie set during World War
        II, about a commando suicide squad recruited from lifer convicts 
        (starring Lee Marvin and Charles Bronson).  Novel by E.M.

% **  The monsters of Prehistoric World:  The footage comes from a
%       Japanese film called "Gappa -- The Triphibian Monster" (19[??]).

  **  Rimmer's abuse of his troops, and the training of 'Arnie's Army':  
        Are military ploys and training to get the most out of the troops
        and weed out the incompetent individuals, as demonstrated in such
        movies as "An Officer And A Gentleman" (1981) and "Full Metal 
        Jacket" (1987).
                Rimmer:  "There's only two kinds from Assisi -- steers 
                  and queers.  Which are you boy?"
        Mimics for example lines from "An Officer And A Gentleman", 
        starring Richard Gere and Louis Gossett, Jr. (as Sergeant Foley).
                Foley:  "Only two things come out of Oklahoma (/Arizona)
                  -- steers and queers.  Which one are you, boy?"

  **  The white-hooded waxdroid in the Third Reich building:  A member of 
        the Ku Klux Klan, an American secret society (founded after the 
        American Civil War) dedicated to white supremacy.

  **  The motorbike Rimmer is 'riding':  Apparently a Norton.


  King Of Kings:  It is likely that Lister, given his taste in films, is 
        talking about the Cecil B. de Mille version of the story of Jesus 
        (1927, silent; starring H.B. Warner) rather than the less 
        critically-accepted 1961 remake.

  Pilate, Pontius:  Roman governor of Judea (26-36) who condemned Jesus 
        to death.  Gospels portray Pilate as reluctant to condemn Christ,
        but succumbing to mass pressure and releasing the thief Barabbas
        instead of Jesus.

  Geronimo:  (1829-1909)  Chief and war leader of Chiricahua Apache 
        Indians, who fought against US federal troops and settlers 
        encroaching onto the Indian lands.  Also the name popularly 
        shouted when parachuting or performing some other exciting 

  Camus, Albert:  (1913-1960)  French existentialist novelist; won the 
        Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957.

  Euclid:  (c.330-c.260 BC)  Greek mathematician specialising in plane 
        and solid geometry, and in number theory.

  Haiku:  Form of Japanese verse, usually consisting of three lines, the
        first and third having five syllables, the second line having
        seven syllables.

  Satsuma:  A form of Japanese pottery, or a Japanese orange of the 
        tangerine family.  Either way, Lister does not speak it.

  **  Crane, Nirvanah:  In Buddhism, nirvana is the attainment of serenity
        and enlightenment through the eradication of all desires.


        PARALLEL  --  The 1984 American movie "The Terminator" (starring
  Arnold Schwarzenegger, Linda Hamilton and Michael Biehn) about a cyborg
  from the future, on a mission of termination.  Sequel (1991) "Terminator
  2: Judgment Day".

  Virgil:  (70-19 BC)  Roman poet who wrote the "Aeneid", the epic poem 
        about the adventures of the hero Aeneas after the fall of Troy -- 
        from his wandering the Mediterranean to his eventual settling/
        founding of Rome.  See also the PIP.

  Agamemnon:  Hero of Greek mythology (son of the King of Mycenae) who led 
        the capture of Troy.  After receiving the prophetess Cassandra as 
        his prize, he was murdered by his wife Clytemnestra and her lover 
        during his return home.

  Helen of Troy:  Most beautiful woman in Greek mythology, the daughter of 
        Leda and Zeus.  Married to King Menelaus of Sparta, her abduction
        by Prince Paris of Troy precipitated the Trojan War (after which 
        she returned to Sparta with her husband).

  Taylor, A(lan) J(ohn) P(ercivale):  (1906-1990)  British historian and 
        TV lecturer, specialising in modern British and European history.

  Sistine Chapel:  Chapel in The Vatican, most famously decorated with 
        frescoes (by Michelangelo, done between 1508-1512) of scenes from
        the Book of Genesis.

  Archangel Gabriel:  Angel close to God, and variously a trumpeter, 
        revealer, and foreteller of the births of John the Baptist (to 
        Zacharias) and Jesus (to the Virgin Mary).

  Poitier, Sidney:  (1924-  )  American actor and director.  Films include 
        "Lilies Of The Field" (1963, for which he won an Oscar), "Guess 
        Who's Coming To Dinner" (1967) and "To Sir, With Love" (1967).

  Curtis, Tony:  (1925-  )  American actor.  Films include "Some Like It
        Hot" (1959), "Spartacus" (1960) and "The Great Race" (1965).

  **  Who's Nobody:  Presumably the version of the book "Who's Who" that 
        deals with Nobodies rather than Somebodies.

  **  "They're chained together like Sidney Poitier and Tony Curtis.":  A 
        reference to the movie "The Defiant Ones" (1958) starring Poitier 
        and Curtis as respectively one black and one white convict chained 
        together, who escape custody and must deal not only with being on 
        the run but also with the issues of racism and their mutual 
        animosity towards one other.


  Gandalf, Master Wizard:  Character created by British writer J.R.R. 
        Tolkien in the book "The Hobbit" (1937) and its following "The 
        Lord Of The Rings" (1954-1955).  An adventure game of "The
        Hobbit" was written for early 8-bit computers; however it appears
        that the 'buying a potion from Gandalf' option doesn't exist...
        well, no one said that the Cat was good at these games, and maybe 
        this is why...

  **  The muzak playing as Kryten off-lines after his accident:  The song 
        "Copacabana" by American singer/songwriter Barry Manilow.

  **  Rimmer's journey to the dungeon of the Unspeakable One:  The crown
        -of-thorns headpiece and the attachment to the cross is akin to 
        Christ's last journey to His crucifixion.

  **  The Hooded Legions (with 'rather unconvincing red eyes'):  Must be 
        related to the Jawas of Tatooine in the movie "Star Wars" 
        (1977), starring Mark Hamill, Harrison Ford and Carrie Fisher.

  **  Rimmer's Self-Respect and Self-Confidence:  Are musketeer-wannabes 
        -- all for one and one for all!


  Algarve:  Historical coastal region of southern Portugal, with a 
        booming tourist trade.

  Betty Boop:  Early cartoon character created by Grim Natwick (who later 
        went on to animate for the Disney Studios).  Recently seen in the 
        movie "Who Framed Roger Rabbit" (1988), helping Eddie Valentine 
        (Bob Hoskins) to mind his manners.

  Schopenhauer, Arthur:  (1788-1860)  German philosopher who saw the world 
        as a conflict of wills resulting in frustration and pain -- the 
        only purpose in life must be to escape 'will' and its accompanying 
        painful strivings.

  Turner, Joseph Mallord William:  (1775-1851)  Prolific British artist 
        famed for his landscapes (and apparently seascapes which look like 
        the contents of Lister's nasal passages).


  Nobel Prize:  Prize awarded annually (began 1901) as recognition for 
        great achievements in several areas, including Peace, Literature 
        and Medicine.  Named after their instigator, Alfred Nobel (1833-
        1896), a Swedish engineer and chemist who invented dynamite 

  **  Toastie Toppers:  Presumably an inferior Low version of the toast-
        topping savoury snack made by Heinz; called, aptly enough, Toast
        Toppers.  These are tasty savoury snacks which come in a ring-pull
        can, and are heated and eaten on toast.  Simple.


  The Wailing Wall:  Aka Western Wall -- a Temple ruin in Jerusalem, 
        sacred site of pilgrimage, mourning and prayer for Jews.  One way
        to offer up prayer is to speak, or 'wail', the prayer aloud.

  Salvation Army:  An international Christian evangelical organisation 
        founded in Great Britain in 1865 by Methodist minister William 


        PARALLEL  --  The Greek legend (told by Homer) of the Sirens.  
  The Sirens were sisters, half bird and half woman, who lived on an 
  island near the Straits of Messina.  The Sirens sang, and any sailor 
  hearing the song could not help but go to the island and be compelled 
  to listen to the singing until his dying day.

  Hendrix, Jimi:  (1942-1970)  American singer and master guitar wizard.
        Songs include "Hey Joe", "All Along The Watchtower" and "The 
        Star-Spangled Banner" (at Woodstock, 1969).

  Yukon:  Territory of Canada, settled during the gold rush of 1896-1910.

  Liquid oxygen:  The Cat is going to get *mighty* cold taking a shower in
        this -- to the tune of colder than minus 183 degrees C (minus 298
        degrees F).

  King Kong:  Giant ape character from the 1933 American movie of the same
        name, starring Robert Armstrong and Fay Wray (also, a 1976 remake 
        with Jeff Bridges and Jessica Lange).  King Kong is taken from his 
        island home to New York, where he causes much havoc before falling 
        to his death off the Empire State Building.

  Ulysses:  Roman name for the Greek mythological hero Odysseus.  Hero of 
        the Trojan War, subject of Homer's "Odyssey" and also appearing in 
        his "Iliad".

  Eiger:  Mountain in the Swiss Alps, 3970 metres (about 13025 feet) high.
        And that is one *big* pile of laundry.

  **            Cat:  "There's an old Cat proverb -- 'It's better to live 
                  one hour as a tiger, than a whole lifetime as a worm'."
                Rimmer:  "There's an old human proverb -- 'Whoever heard 
                  of a worm-skin rug?'."
        Lines from the second pilot of Red Dwarf USA.
                Cat (Terry Farrell):  "There's an old Cat proverb that 
                  says it's better to live an hour as a tiger, than a 
                  lifetime as a worm."
                Rimmer (Anthony Fuscle):  "There's an old human saying -- 
                  'Whoever heard of a worm-skin rug?'."

  **  The spaceship graveyard:  One of the asteroids is home to a derelict 
        Eagle ship, from the 1970s TV series "Space: 1999", starring 
        Martin Landau and Barbara Bain.  Elsewhere there is also a ship 
        from the 1986 movie "Aliens" (starring Sigourney Weaver and 
        Michael Biehn), as well as a Klingon ship from "Star Trek".

  **  "Like with Ulysses in that ancient Turkish legend.":  Lister is 
        twice confused.  Firstly, as Kryten points out, the legend was 
        Greek.  Secondly, the Greek legend speaks of the hero as Odysseus
        (Ulysses is the Roman variation).  Odysseus was a hero of the 
        Trojan War (the Trojan Horse strategy was his idea), mentioned by
        Homer in both the "Iliad" and the "Odyssey".  After the Trojan 
        War Odysseus journeys home to Ithaca; on the way he must pass the
        Sirens' island.  He fills the ears of his crew with wax, and 
        binds himself to the mast of his ship, in order that none can 
        hear or act upon the temptation of the Sirens' song.

  **  "This is Captain Tau of the SCS Pioneer.":  Captain Tau was the 
        captain of the Red Dwarf in the first pilot of Red Dwarf USA
        (and played by Lorraine Toussaint).


        PARALLEL  --  The Bible, Mark 5:9 and Luke 8:30.  Around these 
  verses tells of the healing of a man possessed by demons.  In both 
  stories the man gives his name as 'Legion', because many demons have 
  possessed him.  See below.

  Herman Munster:  Character created by Fred Gwynne (1926-1993) for the 
        TV series "The Munsters" (also two spin-off films).  Herman 
        Munster was a caricature of the Frankenstein's monster a la Boris

  Jovian:  Descriptive of the planet Jupiter.

  Caravaggio, Michelangelo Merisi Da:  (1573-1610)  Italian baroque 
        painter.  Of course it's one of his paintings that Rimmer is 
        contemplating, not the painter himself...

  **  "Like General George S. Patton, I believe in reincarnation.":  
        Patton believed that in a previous incarnation he was a foot-
        soldier in Alexander The Great's army during the siege of Tyre 
        (in modern Lebanon) in 332 BC.

  **  "Some of the physicists involved -- Heidegger, Davro, Holder, 
        Quayle.":  My one concession to pure speculation!  Possibly these 
        physicists are descended from some famous people of these names.  
        Perhaps even Martin Heidegger (1889-1976; German philosopher), 
        Bobby Davro ([?]-  ; British comedian/entertainer), Alfred 
        Theophil Holder (1840-1916; Austrian language scholar) and Dan 
        Quayle (1947-  ; former American vice president -- here's hoping
        that his descendant, with all his brilliance, knew how to spell 

  **            Legion:  "My name is Legion, for we are many."
        Line from the Bible (Mark 5:9, new King James Version)...
                When Jesus asked the demon-possessed man his name, the
                  man replied:  "My name is Legion; for we are many."


        PARALLEL  --  From the Bible (Revelation 6), the Four Horsemen of
  the Apocalypse: War (on a red horse), Famine (on a black horse), Death 
  (on a pale horse) and Pestilence (on a white horse).  These four were
  given power 'over a fourth of the earth, to kill with sword, with hunger,
  with death, and by the beasts of the earth'.

        PARALLEL  --  For the detective AR game Lister is playing, the 
  British movie "Gumshoe" (1971); starring Albert Finney as a Liverpudlian 
  who dreams himself as a private eye involved in a murder case.

  Sing Sing:  American prison having a well-used electric chair.

  Wimbledon:  Lawn-tennis tournament (and the name of the centre in England
        at which the tournament is held).

  Tarka Dall:  Chick-pea-based Indian dish.

  Bhindi Bhaji:  Potato- or okra-based Indian dish.

  Armageddon:  The site of the final battle of nations that will lead to 
        the end of the world (the Bible, Revelation 16:16).

  **  The car in Gumshoe:  A 1938 Bentley.

  **  "No, the last thing they'll be expecting is for us to turn into 
        ice-skating mongooses and dance the Bolero.":  British ice-dancers 
        Jayne Torvill and Christopher Dean won Winter Olympic gold medals 
        (Sarajevo, 1984) with programmes that included their popular 
        routine danced to Maurice Ravel's "Bolero" (1928).

  **  Butch Accountant And The Yuppie Kid:  Parody of the American movie 
        "Butch Cassidy And The Sundance Kid" (1969) starring Paul Newman 
        and Robert Redford.

  **  "Senorita, tre tequilas por favore.":  Miss, three tequilas please 


  Cavaliers:  During the English Civil War (1642-1651), supporter of 
        Charles I.  The Cavaliers generally wore courtly dress and had 
        long hair.  See below.

  Roundheads:  During the English Civil War (1642-1651), supporter of 
        Oliver Cromwell and the Parliamentarian cause.  The Roundheads 
        wore their hair short as was typical of men of the lower classes.
        See below.

  **  "One-nil to the pudding basins.":  The conflict between Charles I 
        (1600-1649; King of Great Britain 1625-1649) and Parliament (led 
        by Oliver Cromwell, 1599-1658) resulted in the beheading of the
        King in 1649, and the establishment of the Commonwealth (1649-
        1660) with Cromwell as Protector (1653-1658).  Monarchy was 
        restored in 1660 with Charles I's son Charles II (1630-1685; King
        of Great Britain 1660-1685).

  **  The man behind the grassy knoll:  'Gunman' (besides Lee Harvey 
        Oswald) allegedly involved in the assassination of American 
        president John F. Kennedy in Dallas, November 1963.

  **  Victory for the home eleven:  A reference to the marvellous game 
        of cricket, in which there are eleven standard playing members 
        per team.


  Aneurysm:  Often-congenital weakening of the wall of an artery, making
        the blood vessel prone to rupture (which may prove fatal) at 
        any time.

  Thirty Years' War:  (1618-1648)  Major European war beginning as a 
        religious conflict in Germany and shifting to a struggle for 
        power by the Hapsburgs.

  Hundred Years' War:  (1337-1453)  Conflicts between England and France
        over political alliances and English claims on the French throne.

  Crusoe, Robinson:  Shipwrecked title character of the novel (1719) by 
        Daniel Defoe.  See below.

  Jane:  Companion of Tarzan of the Apes (character created by Edgar Rice 
        Burroughs, 1912).

  **  A two-storey home with running water and a balcony-stroke-sun patio:  
        The type of house built by victims of another shipwreck, "The 
        Swiss Family Robinson" (novel by Johann Wyss, 1812-1813; a 
        deliberate adaptation of Daniel Defoe's "Robinson Crusoe").


  Mogadon Cluster:  Not in any of *my* astronomy books, but sure is a 
        handy group of tablets to have in an emergency!!  ;-)  The 
        sedative Nitrazepam, popularly taken by drug users to 'come down'.

  Nixon, Richard Milhous:  (1913-1994)  37th President (1969-74) of the 
        USA, a Republican.  He resigned over scandals including his 
        involvement in the Watergate cover-up.

  Hapsburgs:  European royals, imperial family of Austria-Hungary.  
        Dating from the 10th century, the family members then came to 
        rule as kings of Germany and as Holy Roman Emperors.  At the 
        height of their power the Hapsburg families ruled a large portion
        of Europe.  Several Hapsburg divisions occurred, the last line of
        which ended rule early this century.

  Borgias:  15th/16th century Italian (originally Spanish) noble family 
        who had great political power in Renaissance Italy, and whose 
        lifestyles were anything but sedate.  The better-known members 
        were the corrupt Pope, Alexander VI, and his two illegitimate 
        children -- Cesare (cardinal and general) and Lucrezia (Duchess 
        of Ferrara and political intriguer, and alleged to have had 
        incestuous relationships with both her brother and father).

  Louis XVI:  (1754-1793)  King of France 1774-1793.  After the French 
        Revolution in 1789, Louis and his family lost power, but not 
        until 1792 were the Royal Family taken prisoner by the French 
        government.  After being tried for treason, Louis was guillotined
        in 1793.

  **  "Don't Nixon me, man!":  Accusation of a cover-up, a la former 
        American President Richard Nixon's (1913-1994) cover-up relating
        to the political scandal of Watergate.

  **  "His wife's an absolute cutie!":  The wife of Louis XVI was Marie 
        Antoinette (1755-1793).


  Noel Edmonds (BACK TO REALITY):  ([?]-  )  British 'personality' and 
        practical joker.  Star of his own show called "Noel's House 

  The Oakland (HOLOSHIP):  A town in northern California which is home to
        a sports stadium called the Oakland-Almeda County Coliseum.

  "Eeeextraordinary!" (BACK TO REALITY etc):  One of Chris Barrie's 
        impressions is of David Coleman (a British sportscaster, [?] -  ;
        that's him talking to Lester Piggott at Wembley in the later 
        MELTDOWN piece), in which he uses the word 'extraordinary' a lot.
        The Red Dwarf cast have now taken to doing an impression of Chris
        Barrie doing an impression of David Coleman.

  Billy The Kid (JUSTICE):  Nickname of American outlaw William Bonney 
        (1859-1881) who had allegedly killed over 20 men (the first at 
        age 12) by the time he died. 

  Kenneth Williams (MELTDOWN etc):  (1926-1988)  British actor best known
        for his roles in the "Carry On" series of movies (also starring 
        for the most part Sid James and Joan Sims), eg. "Carry On Henry"
        (1971), "Carry On Matron" (1972).

  Voyage To The Bottom Of The Sea (Unidentified):  (1961)  American 
        movie about a futuristic undersea odyssey in an atomic submarine.
        Starred Walter Pidgeon and Joan Fontaine, and spawned a TV series.
        It is actually the TV series (1964-1967, starring Richard Basehart
        and David Hedison) that Craig Charles and Robert Llewellyn would 
        be taking off -- the schlock 'special effects' are trademark of 
        Irwin Allen, the producer/director responsible for both the movie
        and the series; and whose other notable projects include the TV
        series "Land Of The Giants" and "Lost In Space", and the movies
        "The Poseidon Adventure" (1972) and "The Towering Inferno" (1974).

  Fiennes, Sir Ranulph (RIMMERWORLD):  (1944-  )  British explorer who 
        made the first surface journey around the world's polar 

  Wembley (MELTDOWN):  Sports stadium in London at which the FA (Football
        Association) Cup Final is held every year (since 1923).

  Piggott, Lester (MELTDOWN):  (1935-  )  Champion British jockey; 
        imprisoned in 1987 for tax evasion (returned to racing 1990).

  Vat '69 (MELTDOWN):  VAT is value added tax, Vat '69 is a type of 

  **  One of the model shots of Starbug leaving the Red Dwarf:  Shows
        the blue police box TARDIS (Time And Relative Dimensions In 
        Space) that is the transport vehicle for Doctor Who (in the 
        British time-travel science-fiction show of the same name).  All 
        right yes I know we all know that, but it's just included for 
        completeness' sake, okay?


  "Just pretend it's scrumpy." (MAROONED):  Scrumpy is an alcoholic apple
        cider, most particularly from the West Country of England.

  "Who's the most unpopular man at a Borussia Munchengladbach match?" 
        (Unidentified):  A German football team.


  Weenies:  An American name for hot-dog sausages or frankfurters.

  Amish:  Most insular and conservative faction of Mennonites, a
        Protestant religious group who reject worldliness (eg. in the
        form of using no modern technology and wearing no modern
        clothing styles) and live simple lives in emulation of early
        Christians.  The main American community is in Pennsylvania.

  **  "We saw this Cuban guy who kept hitting bongo drums and calling for
        'Lucy!'.":  Apparently the ship was picking up transmissions of 
        the 1950s TV show "I Love Lucy", starring Lucille Ball (1911-1989)
        and her then-husband, Desi Arnaz (1917-1986), a Cuban conga 
        musician, singer, and later actor.


  **  The scroll format and lettering "Not so long ago, in a universe not
        so very far away...":  Mimics the eventual scroll format and the
        initial words from the 1977 American movie "Star Wars" (starring 
        Mark Hamill, Carrie Fisher and Harrison Ford) -- "A long time ago 
        in a galaxy far, far away...."

  **  "What if they're...the kind [aliens] that want to enter your bodily
        orifices and then burst out at inappropriate moments?":  A 
        reference to the 1979 British movie "Alien", starring Sigourney
        Weaver and John Hurt.  In the movie, Hurt's character Kane has
        an alien 'embryo' deposited in his digestive system via an 
        ovipositoral insertion through his mouth.  The 'embryo' then
        chooses to burst out of Kane's upper abdomen during the Nostromo
        crew's meal, killing Kane and effectively ruining the appetites
        of the remaining, living diners.  Most inappropriate indeed, and
        certainly not covered by Emily Post.

  **  Green, acid-filled butts:  Another reference to the abovementioned
        movie "Alien".  'Green' is probably a matter of opinion, but the
        aliens in the movie (and its sequels) certainly had concentrated
        acid for 'blood'.