Ganymede and Titan

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    T H E   R E D   D W A R F   R E F E R E N C E S   L I S T  ( B O O K )

        A Who's Who, Where's Where, When was When and What's from What of 
                          the story books of RED DWARF.

Version 2.00, August 1996.

%       Marks new since last version.

Edited by Annette (, just to prove that I really 
*don't* have enough to do to occupy my time.  :-)

**  Note on version 2.00:  Even though there are a few totally new entries
                           and modifications for the books published 
                           before BACKWARDS, the mega-rearrangement from
                           version 1.50 means that essentially, everything
                           old in the books preceding Backwards is new 
                           again.  Thus, the "%" markers do not appear in 
                           version 2.00, but will be back for the next 


NOTICE:  This document, its format, and all material contained herein are 
protected by public copyright, except where it conflicts with the 
copyright of Grant Naylor.  This document *may* be distributed freely in 
its entirety and posted at electronic sites where no fee is charged for 
its viewing.  It *may not* be sold or published for profit in any form.


        The RDRL (BOOK) deals only with those books that are fictional
accounts of the Red Dwarf universe(s) -- the four novels INFINITY 
the diary RED DWARF LOG NO. 1996.  It does not refer at all to 'fact'
books about Red Dwarf, such as the Programme Guide or the Quiz Book.  To 
check up on filmed Red Dwarf, go to the RDRL (TV) which deals with the 
television show of Red Dwarf, its out-takes tapes, and the two pilots 
of Red Dwarf USA (posted to on the last Monday of every 
even-numbered month).

        The Red Dwarf References List (BOOK) or RDRL (BOOK) is a list of 
explanations for those references made in the books of Red Dwarf to 
things *outside* of Red Dwarf; eg. people, movies, books, historical 
events, places of peculiar reputation, whatever.  It *is not* an A-Z of 
Red Dwarf...well, that's what the Programme Guide is for.

        The RDRL (BOOK) attempts to identify/explain references to 
movies, books, songs, famous people, certain places, historical events, 
etc.  The reference can be direct, ie. named (eg. Peter Greenaway); or 
indirect or alluded to (eg. Lister's quoting of the Star Trek motto).
        Things which *generally* will not be counted (though there *will* 
be a few exceptions) are: furnishings, decorations and possessions (unless 
referring to one of the above listings); food (unless a proper name or 
certain brand names); sayings or expressions (unless containing proper 
names); *broad* religious parallels; scientific terminology (unless 
containing proper names).  As well, there are a very few things which are 
self-explanatory in the context of the book; these are not included 
as there is nothing left to add.  Lastly, a few things must be so well-
known there's no need for explanation -- we all know who Jesus was, right?

        The RDRL (BOOK) at the moment is incomplete and may also contain 
some information which is downright wrong (eg. for a couple of things 
I've just put two and two together, and *may* have ended up with five!). 
Anyone who has a correction to existing information (though let's not 
split hairs), I'd love to hear from you.  Please EMAIL me with the 
substantiated modification (something I can cross-check ideally, and 
definitely not a "My friend heard on the radio that...").  Thanks.  
        Nearly all of the references are essentially complete as they are 
now -- mostly I'll only have one to four sentences about each reference.
Any reference not containing a "[?]" will not be modified unless it is out
and out *wrong*, or there is an additional *definite* allusion that I have
missed.  Not all things I've marked in this way will necessarily be true
external references; and I may not even have the spelling right in some

        *New* references will be gratefully accepted in the following 
categories *ONLY* -- all forms of the entertainment media; famous people; 
historical events; places of character. 

        All the references contained within this document must be true 
references and *not* COINCIDENCES.  For example, I doubt that BACKWARDS'
"Wildfire" was named after a horse in a very sad song.  ;-)  I will not 
include something unless a definite (or *HIGHLY* likely) connection can 
be established.

        The actual references are divided into three sections.

                a)  Space.
A run down of the solar system's planets and their satellites.  Whether 
mentioned in the TV show or books.
                b)  Earth.
All of the countries, significant places, and major towns mentioned in 
Red Dwarf.  Whether from TV show or books.

                Direct references (not already covered above) which are 
mentioned in two or more books.  Listed alphabetically.

3)        THE BOOKS.
                Listed by book, in the order IWCD, BTL, LH, BKW and LOG.

        Any reference which contains "[?]" means that I would like more 
information pretty pretty please.  The position of the "[?]" often gives a 
good indication of the type of information I want, eg. (1926-[?]) means I 
would like to know the year of death. 

        Anything new/modified from the previous version will be marked 
with a "%" in the left margin.

        The references are listed per book as:

  PARALLEL  (where appropriate).  'Ideas/inspiration' for the story.
  Direct references.  Listed in the order they appear in the book.
  Indirect references (**).  Listed in the order they appear in the 

        * If a reference is not listed for a particular book, check 
the COMMON REFERENCES section. *

        Biographies may be given for direct people references.
        Birth/death year given for actors playing a character directly 
        The words 'recorded by' as applied to songs do not necessarily 
indicate the original artist, just a well-known one.
        Movie dates may be the year of production or year of release.
        The term 'football' means the game of soccer unless otherwise 

        To get a copy of the RDRL (BOOK):

  a)  Wait for it on the n/g (where it will be posted
on the last Monday of every odd-numbered month), 

  b)  For a start on the Web, try the following sites...

Friday's pages at

Michael Nagy's Queeg pages at

Thanks guys!  :-)

        If you can get the RDRL (BOOK) by neither of the above means, 
email me and I'll send you a text copy.

        The nature of this document means that it is basically ONE BIG 
SPOILER.  For LOTS OF THINGS (in particular, for the movie "It's A 
Wonderful Life").  Consider this a spoiler warning -- read the RDRL 
(BOOK) at your own risk.

        Many many thanks to Grant Naylor, for all things Red Dwarf!
        *Big* sloppy thanks to Tom Marwede (who really, really cares about
this sort of thing!), and also to Raz (my 'foreign' correspondent, 
constructive critic, and Provider of the Logo!).  ;-)
        Thanks to Friday and Michael Nagy for giving the RDRL (BOOK) a 
        Thanks to Ang Rosin, for answering my mini-mini Scouse 
        Thank you:  Damone, Cma, Elliedra, Bette Llewellyn, FroggyGrem, 
Andrew Hetherington, Jim Wraith, Phaedrus, John Coleman, Nadine SFWBWWWW, 
Fraser, Kerry Galgano, Friday, Pat Berry, Paul Barnes, Laurence Jason 
Koehn, George Rudy, Tracie Webster, Alsion Campbell, Richard Lockwood,
Steve Howell, Kay Annette Bristol, Alexander Lum, Todd Miller, Alan Moon,
Ian D. Jones, Jim Shaw, John Foster, Allan Jenney, Wendy O'Boyle, Linda 
Stephens, Gavrielle Perry and Todd Pinarchick.

        New contributions since version 1.50:  Gavrielle Perry, Gary
        Big thanks to Jim Shaw, for all the trouble he went to to find
out who knocked Swansea City out of the 1967 FA Cup.
        And thanks to Rob Grant for pointing me in the right direction
to find a few things.  :-)



A)        SPACE.

        RED DWARF  --  A red dwarf is a type of star.  Red dwarf stars 
  are very long-lived and are probably the most abundant stars in the 
  universe.  The closest star to Earth (besides its own Sun) is the red 
  dwarf star Proxima Centauri (magnitude 11, 4.3 light years away), a 
  companion to the binary star Alpha Centauri. The RED DWARF's shuttle 
  crafts' names (excepting Starbug) are also types of stars.

  Mercury:  The closest planet to your actual sun.  Named after the 
        messenger to the Roman gods.

  Venus:  Second planet from the sun.  Named after the Roman goddess of 

  Mars:  Fourth planet from the sun.  Named after the Roman god of war.

  Jupiter:  Fifth from the sun and largest planet.  Named after Jupiter, 
        chief of the Roman gods.  
        Satellites:  Ganymede (named after the cupbearer of Zeus, Greek 
        equivalent of Jupiter), Io (named after a lover of Zeus), Europa
        (named after another lover of Zeus), Callisto (surprise surprise,
        yet another of Zeus's conquests).

  Saturn:  Ringed planet, sixth from the sun.  Named after a Roman god of 
        Satellites:  Titan (named for a race of primeval Greek gods), 
        Mimas, Tethys (named after a Titan sea-goddess), Dione (named 
        after a Greek earth-goddess), Rhea (named after a Titan mother-
        goddess), Hyperion (named after a Titan sun-god), Phoebe (named 
        after a Titan moon-goddess).

  Uranus:  Seventh planet from the sun.  Named after a Greek sky god, 
        father of the Titans.
        Satellite:  Miranda.

  Neptune:  Eighth or ninth planet from the sun.  Named after the Roman
        god of water.
        Satellite:  Triton (named after the merman son of Poseidon, the 
        Greek equivalent of Neptune).

  Pluto:  Eighth or ninth planet from the sun.  Named after the Roman god
        of the underworld.

B)        EARTH.

  Countries and regions of the world:  Fiji, Denmark, Bermuda, Portugal,
        Uruguay, India, Spain, The Vatican, Burma, Bulgaria, Bosnia,
        France, Poland, Austria, England, Italy, USA, Macedonia, Turkey,
        Bahamas, Czechoslovakia, Bolivia, Iran, Taiwan, Belgium, Estonia,
        Egypt, Cuba, Japan, Greece, Great Britain, Mexico, Norway, Wales,
        Albania, The Netherlands, China, Vietnam, Persia, South Africa,
        Germany (and East), Russia, Soviet Union, Tibet, Luxembourg,
        Scotland, Mongolia, Armenia, Australia, Syria, Korea, Sweden,
        Tunisia, Tanzania, Morocco, Ireland, Canada, Cornwall, Prussia,
        Alsace, Bali, Java, Malagasy Republic, Zanzibar, West Indies,
        Flanders, Burgundy, Provence, Corsica, Texas, Oregon, Indiana,
        Pennsylvania, South Dakota, Arizona, Alaska, New Mexico, Hawaii,
        Kentucky, Yorkshire, Orange County.

  World cities/towns:  Washington, Chicago, Salzburg, Hilo, London, Paris,
        Liverpool, Copenhagen, Helsinki, New York (Manhattan), Moscow, San
        Francisco, Houston, Madras, Rome, Berlin, Turin, Florence,
        Bangalore, Havana, Warsaw, Casablanca, Bonn, Tokyo, Oslo,
        Newcastle, Acapulco, Boston, Birmingham, Laredo, Dallas, Gouda,
        Venice, Marbella, Kiev, Lagos, Los Angeles (and Beverly Hills and
        Hollywood), Detroit, Niagara Falls, Las Vegas, Gettysburg.



  Action Man:  Boys' toy, a doll in the style of G.I. Joe.
          {LH, BKW}

  Aigburth Arms:  A real pub, on Victoria Road, in Aigburth -- an area of 
        (and former village outside of) Liverpool.  Though its pool table 
        allowed Lister to become the stuff of legend, this pub did not 
        always have this apparatus on which to be a Cinzano Bianco.
          {LH, BKW}

  Buddhism:  Religion originating in India around 500 BC from the 
        teachings of Prince Gautama Siddhartha (Buddha, "The Enlightened 
        One").  No deity worship, but a doctrine of karma and 
        reincarnation, and a philosophy of good/evil being rewarded/
        punished in future incarnations.
          {IWCD, LH}

  Capra, Frank:  (1897-1991)  Italian-born American writer, producer and 
        director.  Triple Oscar winner for directing, his films include 
        "It Happened One Night" (1934), "Mr. Smith Goes To Washington" 
        (1939), "Arsenic And Old Lace" (1944) and "It's A Wonderful Life"
          {IWCD, BTL}

  Carmichael, Hoagy:  (1899-1981)  American singer, songwriter, pianist 
        and bandleader.  Wrote many songs for film and TV and often 
        appeared on celluloid as himself to perform the songs.
          {IWCD, BTL}

  Custer, General George Armstrong:  (1839-1876)  American Civil War 
 general who later campaigned against the Sioux nation from 1874;
        he and his entire troop detachment (save only one of the warhorses, 
        called Comanche) were destroyed by Sitting Bull's ambushing 
        forces at the Battle Of Little Bighorn (Montana, 25 June 1876).
          {LH, BKW}

  Eiffel Tower:  Famous Parisian landmark named after and constructed by
        the French engineer Gustave Eiffel (1832-1923), for the Paris 
        Exhibition of 1889.
          {IWCD, BKW}

  Einstein, Albert:  (1879-1955)  Pretty famous physicist actually, and 
        the theory goes that Einstein = Mister Clever (too).
          {IWCD, BTL, BKW}

  Elizabeth I:  (1533-1603)  Queen of England (1558-1603).  Elizabeth 
        never married and was nicknamed "The Virgin Queen" (reflected in
        the naming of the US state of Virginia).
          {BTL, BKW}

  Esperanto:  The second language of Red Dwarf, and one that Rimmer has 
        been trying unsuccessfully to learn for eight years.  Esperanto is
        an artificial, logical language incorporating principles/words 
        derived from major European languages.  It was devised in 1887 by 
        Polish philologist Ludwig Zamenhof (1859-1917).

  Flintstones, The:  Indisputably-classic cartoon from Hanna-Barbera, 
        about two Bedrock suburban couples (Fred and Wilma Flintstone, and
        Barney and Betty Rubble).
          {IWCD, BTL}

  Hendrix, Jimi:  (1942-1970)  American singer and master guitar wizard.
        Songs include "Hey Joe", "All Along The Watchtower" and "The 
        Star-Spangled Banner" (at Woodstock, 1969).
          {IWCD, LH}

  It's A Wonderful Life:   It's a wonderful film (1946) by Frank Capra, 
        starring James Stewart and Donna Reed.  George Bailey (Stewart) 
        is a selfless man who has lived a good life in Bedford Falls, 
        where he frequently gave up his own opportunities for the good of
        others.  One Christmas Eve when things have gone so wrong that 
        George believes everyone would be better off if he were dead, he 
        first attempts suicide, but (after being saved by the angel 
        Clarence) then laments instead that he had ever been born at all.
        Clarence then takes George on a visit to the town and people of a 
        Bedford Falls where George Bailey had never existed...  (Watch 
        this film only with a *big* box of tissues to cry into!)
        Several characters, buildings, etc. from the film crop up in 
        Lister's fantasy world in the game Better Than Life...
                Old Man Gower (played by H.B. Warner; 1876-1958) and his 
                Bert the cop (played by Ward Bond; 1903-1960).
                Ernie the cab-driver (played by Frank Faylen; 1907-1985).
                Martini (played by Bill Edmunds; 1885-1981) and his bar.
                Potter (played by Lionel Barrymore; 1878-1954).
                Ma Bailey (played by Beulah Bondi; 1892-1981) and her 
        boarding house.
                Billy Bailey (played by Thomas Mitchell; 1892-1962).  
        Even though Billy Bailey does not play the tuba in the film, both 
        Billys are a couple of lettuces short of an allotment and are 
        bound to be the same person.
                There is an Emporium in the film's Bedford Falls, though
        I doubt it sells shami kebabs!
                Lister lives at 220 Sycamore Avenue; James Stewart's 
        George Bailey lives at 320 Sycamore.
                Both Baileys have a clapped-out old piano on which their 
        children play Christmas carols, although Lister's sons Jim and 
        Bexley are playing "Silent Night" while George Bailey's (James 
        Stewart) daughter Janie is playing "Hark The Herald Angels Sing".
          {IWCD, BTL}

  Julius Caesar:  (c.100-44 BC)  Roman statesman, general and dictator.
          {IWCD, BTL}

  Kryten:  Kryten's name/character mimics that in the play "The Admirable
        Crichton" (1902), by J.M. Barrie.  The real Admirable Crichton
        was a Scottish adventurer, James Crichton (1560-1593), famous
        for his accomplishments and attainments.

  La Bamba:  Traditional Latino party song, originally adapted into a hit 
        (1958) by Ritchie Valens.  Covered by Los Lobos in 1987 for the 
        film of the same name, which starred Lou Diamond Phillips.
          {IWCD, BKW}

  Lancaster, Burt:  (1913-1994)  American actor, producer, writer and 
        director.  Films include "From Here To Eternity" (1953), "Separate
        Tables" (1958), "Birdman Of Alcatraz" (1962) and "Field Of Dreams"
          {IWCD, BKW}

  Last, James:  (1929-  )  German-born cabaret/dance band leader and 
        musician.  Big success in Europe.  Albums such as "Polka Party" 
        and "Violins In Love" indicate both why Rimmer likes him so much 
        and why he is truly evil!  ;-)
          {IWCD, LH} 

  Lincoln, Abraham:  (1809-1865)  "Honest Abe", 16th President of the USA 
        (1861-5, Republican).  President during the time of the American 
        Civil War, he was concerned with preserving the Union and freeing
        the slaves.  He was assassinated by John Wilkes Booth while 
        attending a play.
          {BTL, BKW}

  Mozart, Wolfgang Amadeus:  (1756-1791)  Austrian genius composer, and 
        virtuoso piano and violin player.
          {IWCD, BTL, BKW}

  Nelson, Horatio:  (1758-1805)  British (naval) admiral.  During the 
        French Revolutionary Wars he lost the sight of his right eye 
        (1794), and lost his right arm in 1797.
          {IWCD, LH}

  Niagara Falls:  Two waterfalls on the Niagara River on the Canadian 
        (Ontario) and USA (New York state) border.
          {BTL, LH, BKW}

  Patton, George Smith:  (1885-1945)  American general during World War 
          {IWCD, LH}

  Pompadour:  Brushed-up hairstyle named for the Marquise de Pompadour 
        (Jeanne Antoinette Poisson, 1721-1764), mistress of King Louis 
        XV of France.
          {IWCD, LH}

  Rorschach, Hermann:  (1884-1922)  Swiss psychiatrist who developed the 
        Rorschach Ink Test, a psychology diagnostic tool whereby the 
        personality types of patients may be identified by the person's 
        interpretation of what patterns he/she sees in the ink spots.
          {LH, BKW}

  Saint Peter:  Simon called Peter, former disciple of Jesus.  He was 
        martyred on the Vatican Hill, Rome, in approximately 64 -- said
        to have been crucified upside-down in parody of the crucifixion
        of Christ.
          {IWCD, BKW}

  Turin, Shroud of:  The Italian city of Turin is home to a Christian 
        relic in the form of a piece of cloth with an 'imprint' of a man 
        upon it; it is believed by many to be the burial shroud of Jesus 
        Christ, but scientific testing has shown the cloth to date only 
        from the 13th or 14th century.
          {IWCD, LH}

  Tutankhamun (King Tut):  (c.1360-1350 BC)  Boy pharaoh of ancient 
        Egypt, and one of the few whose tomb survived to the present day 
        largely unplundered by thieves (discovered by Howard Carter, 
        1922).  His famous gold death mask is presently in a Cairo museum.
          {LH, BKW}

  Valkyrie:  One of the nine virgin (well until they met the Cat) 
        semidivine priestesses of Freya (goddess of love and beauty) in 
        Norse mythology.  
          {IWCD, BTL}

  Van Gogh, Vincent:  (1853-1890)  Dutch Postimpressionist painter.  
        Given to bouts of insanity, after one of which he cut off his own
        ear.  He shot himself at the age of 37 during another spell of 
        madness.  Paintings include "Still Life With Sunflowers" (1888), 
        "Cornfield With Cypresses" (1889) and "Self-Portrait" (1890).
          {IWCD, BTL, LH}

  Versailles, Palace Of:  Enormous palace outside of Paris, residence of
        the Kings of France from 1682 to 1790.  The 'palace' also contains
        several subsidiary palaces, as well as enormous and intricate 
        sculpted gardens.
          {IWCD, BTL}


        THE BOOKS


        PARALLEL  --  For the game Better Than Life, Frank Capra's movie 
  "It's A Wonderful Life" (1946).

  Dali, Salvador:  (1904-1989)  Spanish (surrealist) painter with an 
        eccentric style and an eccentric moustache.   Painted such things
        as burning giraffes and 'melting clocks' (eg. "Persistence Of 
        Memory", 1931).

  Broadway:  Avenue in New York; the heart of the theatre district.

  Guinness:  A type of dark creamy stout.  From the Guinness brewery, 
        founded in the 18th century by the Irish family of that name.

  Lloyd, Marie:  (1870-1922)  British music hall artiste.

  Sea of Tranquillity:  Landmark on the Moon which was the site of the 
        first manned (or womanned, depending on which reality you're 
        from) lunar landing.

  Smith and Wesson:  Type of gun.  Favoured by such people as Dirty Harry 
        Callahan -- it really helps to make his day.

  Cartesian Principle:  "I think, therefore I am" by philosopher Rene 
        Descartes.  This pops up a lot in the world of Red Dwarf, in one 
        strange form after another.

  GCSE:  General Certificate of Secondary Education -- qualifications 
        received at completion of comprehensive school (age 15-16).

  Clarke, Arthur C.:  (1917-  )  British scientific speculator and 
        science-fiction writer.  Best-known works "2001: A Space Odyssey"
        (1968; made into a film by Stanley Kubrick) and its sequels.

  Heisenberg, Werner Carl:  (1901-1976)  German physicist, and Nobel Prize 
        winner 1932.  Developed quantum theory and the uncertainty (or 
        indeterminacy) principle (where the implication is that it is 
        impossible to predict the moment-to-moment behaviour of an atomic 
        system) for quantum mechanics.  I freely admit that "Heisenberg's 
        Uncertainty Principle For Beginners" would come in extremely 
        handy for me too, as the most I get out of reading the principle
        is that Heisenberg must have been one very clever chap indeed to
        have thought of it.

  Twain, Mark:  (1835-1910)  American writer.  Best-known works include 
        "The Adventures Of Tom Sawyer" (1876), "The Adventures Of 
        Huckleberry Finn" (1885) and "A Connecticut Yankee At King 
        Arthur's Court" (1889).
                McIntyre:  "Rumours of my death have been greatly 
        In 1897 Mark Twain sent a cable from London to the Associated 
        Press, in order to confirm his continued state of life...
                Twain:  "The report of my death is exaggerated."
        This cable is often 'quoted' as "Rumours of my death have been 
        greatly exaggerated."

  Captain Kirk:  The captain of the Red Dwarf was saddled with this name, 
        made famous by Canadian-born American actor William Shatner 
        (1931-  ) in the "Star Trek" series and movies via his portrayal 
        of Captain James Tiberius Kirk.

  Scala:  A cinema.

  Greenaway, Peter:  (1942-  )  British writer and director, known for 
        his films which appear to be engendered to stir up controversy, 
        or failing that, to stir up at least the contents of the viewers' 
        stomachs.  Films include "The Draughtsman's Contract" (1983), 
        "The Cook, The Thief, His Wife & Her Lover" (1989), "Prospero's 
        Books" (1991) and "The Baby Of Macon" (1993).

  Copacabana:  Song about love, murder and regrets at the hottest spot 
        north of Havana (where music and passion were always the fashion).
        Recorded by Barry Manilow.

  42nd Street:  (1933)  American musical film about putting on a Broadway 
        musical.  Starring Werner Baxter and Ginger Rogers.  From the 
        novel by Bradford Ropes.

  Stewart, James:  (1908-  )  Most excellent American actor.  Star of 
        many films, one for which he received an Oscar ("The Philadelphia 
        Story", 1940) and four others which garnered him Oscar nominations
        ("Mr. Smith Goes To Washington", 1939; "It's A Wonderful Life", 
        1946; "Harvey", 1950; and "Anatomy Of A Murder", 1959).   Other 
        films include "Broken Arrow" (1950), "Rear Window" (1954), 
        "Vertigo" (1958) and recently "An American Tail: Fievel Goes 
        West" (1991) as the voice of Wylie Burp.

  Monroe, Marilyn:  (1926-1962)  American actress and sex symbol.  Best-
        known films include "How To Marry A Millionaire" (1953), 
        "Gentlemen Prefer Blondes" (1953), "The Seven Year Itch" (1955) 
        and "Some Like It Hot" (1959).

  Crunchie bars:  Scrumdiddlyumptious chocolate-covered honeycomb bars, 
        made by Cadbury.

  Doctor Who:  British science-fiction TV series (debuted 1963) about the 
        adventures of a time-traveller called the Doctor -- played by 
        seven actors; including originally by William Hartnell (1908-1975)
        from 1963-1966, with the longest run by Tom Baker (1934-  ) from 

  Frankenstein:  Book by Mary Shelley, published 1818.  A scientist
        (Frankenstein) creates a monster by reanimating corpse tissue, and
        then suffers the consequences.  Apparently, truly stupid people 
        (and Cats) erroneously believe that it was the monster, not its 
        creator, who was called Frankenstein.

  Bennett, Gordon:  (1841-1918)  James Gordon Bennett, Jr., American 
        newspaper magnate (whose father, James Gordon Bennett, founded the
        New York Herald in 1835).  Bennett was known for his extravagant 
        and capricious behaviour, and his name has become synonymous with
        a feeling of exasperation such as he frequently caused in people.

  Newton, Isaac:  (1642-1727)  British physicist and mathematician.  Laid 
        the foundations of modern physics, including developing calculus, 
        discovering the law of gravity and developing the laws of 
        motion.  Apparently had a penchant for sitting under apple trees.

  Luxembourg, capital of:  That's really a poor IQ for a glass of water.  
        The capital of Luxembourg is...Luxembourg.

  Swansea City:  English football team, knocked out of the FA (Football 
        Association) Cup in 1967 by Arsenal.

  Lolita:  (1955)  Best-known novel of the Russian writer Vladimir 
        Nabokov, it tells the story of a middle-aged man's obsession 
        with a 12 year old girl.

  Nabokov, Vladimir:  (1899-1977)  *Russian*-born American writer.

  Goering, Hermann:  (1893-1946)  The 'bit dodgy, drug-crazed Nazi
        transvestite' associate of Hitler.  Established the Gestapo and 
        concentration camps.  Committed suicide before he could be 
        executed for war crimes.

  Sartre, Jean-Paul:  (1905-1980)  French writer/philosopher, apparently
        with a penchant for poncing around in black polo-neck sweaters...

  Camus, Albert:  (1913-1960)  French existentialist novelist; won the 
        Nobel Prize for Literature in 1957.

  Flaubert, Gustave:  (1821-1880)  French novelist.  Well-known work -- 
        "Madame Bovary" (1857).

  Distel, Sacha:  (1933-  )  French guitarist and singer; best-known hit 
        "Raindrops Keep Falling On My Head" from the movie "Butch Cassidy 
        And The Sundance Kid" (1969).

  Emerson, Lake And Palmer:  1070s British techno-rock band, consisting
        of keyboardist and vocalist Keith Emerson (1944-  ), bass
        guitarist Greg Lake (1948-  ) and drummer Carl Palmer (1941-  ).

  Napoleon (Bonaparte):  (1769-1821)  Born at Ajaccio on the island of 
        Corsica.  General, dictator and Emperor of the French (as 
        Napoleon I; 1804-1814).

  Kama-Sutra:  Textbook on erotics and other forms of human pleasure.  
        Named after Indian god of love (Kama).

  Brown, Chelsea:  (1943-  )  American actress.  Appeared on the American 
        comedy show "Laugh In" in the late 1960s; more recently seen in 
        the Australian soap opera "E Street".

  Lennon, John:  (1940-1980)  Singer, songwriter and rhythm guitarist 
        with The Beatles.

  McCartney, Paul:  (1942-  )  Singer, songwriter and rhythm/bass 
        guitarist with The Beatles.

  St. Peter's Square:  Large public square and entry to The Vatican.  
        Named for St. Peter.

  Sistine Chapel:  Chapel in The Vatican, most famously decorated with 
        frescoes (by Michelangelo, done between 1508-1512) of scenes from
        the Book of Genesis.

  Islam:  Religion of Muslims; founded in the 7th century.  The holy book 
        is the Koran, the word of the Prophet (Messenger of Allah/God) 

  Zoroastrianism:  Religion founded by the Persian prophet Zoroaster (aka 
        *Zarathustra*) in the 6th century BC.  Worship is of the good God 
        (Ahura *Mazda*), who is in conflict with the evil God (Ahriman).

  Dharma:  In Hinduism, dharma is the moral law (ethical and religious 
        duties) of an individual, which governs the path of that 
        individual's rebirths.  In Buddhism, dharma is the truth taught 
        by Buddha.

  Brahmanism:  An early developmental stage of Hinduism.

  Hinduism:  Major religion of India, founded about 4000 years ago.  
        Concept of Brahman (supreme spirit) and other lesser divine 
        manifestations including the triad of chief gods -- Brahman, 
        Vishnu and Siva.  Beliefs include reincarnation and karma 
        ('fate'), and there is a caste system.

  Vedanta:  In Hinduism, certain philosophical systems derived from the 
        sacred Hindu treatise called Upanishad.

  Jainism:  Ancient Indian religion.  No deity worship but a principle of 
        compassion, non-violence, and respect for all living things.

  Hinayana:  One of the two major forms of Buddhism (more conservative).

  Mahayana:  The other (later, more liberal) of the two major forms of 

  Sikhism:  Indian religion founded by Nanak in the 15th/16th centuries.  
        Sikhs believe in a single God, and in equality of all human 

  Shintoism:  Indigenous religion of Japan.  Principles include a belief 
        in the oneness of nature, and reverence for the reigning dynasty 
        (descendants of the Sun goddess).

  Taoism:  Chinese philosophical system founded in the 6th century BC by 
        Lao Zi, in which emphasis is placed on harmonious interaction 
        with the environment, leading to a following of the hidden 'way',
        or tao, of the universe. 

  Confucianism:  Beliefs and practices followed on the support of the 
        Chinese sage Confucius (551-479 BC).  A political and 
        philosophical doctrine incorporating the idea of the union of the 
        yin (passive) and yang (active) natural principles.

  Marx, Karl:  (1818-1883)  German philosopher, economist and social 

  Engels, Friedrich:  (1820-1895)  German political and social 
        philosopher.  Also worked with Marx.

  Freud, Sigmund:  (1865-1839)  Austrian physician who pioneered the study 
        of the unconscious mind, and laid foundations for the principle 
        of psychoanalysis.

  Jung, Carl Gustav:  (1875-1961)  Swiss psychiatrist and sometime 
        collaborative-colleague of Freud.

  Keegan, Kevin:  (1951-  )  British (former) footballer; now manager of
        the team Newcastle United. 

  Copernicus, Nicolaus:  (1473-1543)  Polish astronomer who went against 
        Christian doctrine by maintaining that the Sun, not the Earth, 
        was the centre of the solar system.

  Catherine wheel:  Type of spinning firework, also called a pinwheel.
        Named for the 4th century Christian martyr (Saint) Catherine of 
        Alexandria, who protested against the worship of idols and was 
        tortured on a wheel before being beheaded at the behest of the
        Emperor Maxentius.  Her feast day is Gazpacho Soup Day.

  World Trade Center:  In New York City, the second-tallest building in 
        the world at 411 metres (1350 feet) high.  And just because I 
        can't cope with documents which say things like 'the second-
        biggest/tallest/ugliest' etc., and always leave me wondering what
        the hell the *first* is, the tallest building in the world is the
        Sears Tower in Chicago, at 443 metres (1454 feet) high.  :-)

  Rennies:  Anti-indigestion tablets.

  Dixieland:  A jazz style originating in New Orleans after 1917; emphasis
        on trumpet, trombone and clarinet.

  Death March in Saul:  Funeral music from the "Saul" opera (1738) by the 
        German composer George Frideric Handel.

  Yankee Stadium:  American baseball stadium in New York.  Size -- ooh, 
        big.  At least 140 metres (over 400 feet) from here to there,
        apparently.  Well I've been told exact dimensions, but I don't
        understand these baseball field thingies, and I doubt that anyone
        cares too much anyway, so I'll just leave it at that.  Good.

  Lewis':  Department store.

  Mauna Kea:  Dormant volcano and highest peak (4200 metres; 13784 feet) 
        on Hawaii in the Hawaiian Islands.  Also the site of an 
        astronomical observatory, but I guess that's not needed in this 
        particular case.

  Barbican Centre:  Large arts and conferences centre in London (14.2 
        hectares; 35 acres), opened in 1982.  Components include a 
        theatre, cinemas, library, art gallery, restaurants, offices and 

  Pandora:  Greek mythology 'Eve' equivalent, whose curiosity compelled 
        her to open a box given by the Titan Prometheus as a wedding 
        present.  Pandora released the contents of the box -- troubles 
        and diseases -- into the world, along with the one solace (Hope) 
        that was also in the box.

  Shake 'N' Vac:  A carpet-deodorising powder which is shaken onto a 
        carpet and which releases an odour-killing fragrance when the 
        carpet is vacuumed.

  Champion The Wonder Horse:  Champion was the horse of American cowboy
  singer/actor Gene Autry.  From 1955-1956 Champion was the star
        of a CBS children's show called "The Adventures Of Champion".
        This show starred Barry Curtis as 12 year old Ricky North, who
        was always getting into serious scrapes and being rescued by his
        Wonder Horse, Champion, and his faithful German shepherd dog
        called Rebel.

  Serling, Rod:  (1924-1975)  American TV show producer.  Most famous for
        creating and hosting the TV series "Twilight Zone".

  Twilight Zone:  American TV series of fantasy and imagination (1959-
        1964), created and hosted by Rod Serling.  Briefly revived in the
        1980s (the TV show, not Rod Serling -- ick) as a series, and 
        movie (1983).

  Kensington:  Part of London.

  Clive of India:  Robert, Baron Clive of Passey (1725-1774).  British 
        soldier/administrator who established British rule in India.  
        Governor of Bengal.

  I'm A Yankee Doodle Dandy:  Song by vaudevillian George M. Cohan.

  Student Prince, The:  (1954)  American operetta film starring Edmund 
        Purdom and the voice of Mario Lanza; about a prince who goes to 
        Heidelberg to study, but falls in love with a barmaid.  From 
        the play "Old Heidelberg" by Wilhelm Meyer-Foerster.

  Juno:  Roman goddess of women and childbirth and wife of Jupiter, chief
        of the gods.

  King Of The Rocket Men:  (1949)  American serial starring Tristram 
        Coffin -- a mad scientist's diabolical schemes are foiled by the 
        aforementioned Royal Rocketness.

  Bates, Norman:  Character in Alfred Hitchcock's movie "Psycho" (1960).
        Played by Anthony Perkins (1932-1992), Bates had killed his 
        mother and absorbed her persona into himself; in his insanity he 
        kept his mother's skeletal remains as part of his delusion that 
        she was still with him.

  Rumpelstiltskin:  Fairy tale adapted by the Brothers Grimm.  A miller's 
        daughter strikes a bargain with a dwarf in which he saves her 
        life and helps her become Queen, in exchange for the possession 
        of her firstborn child.  The Queen can only avoid giving up her
        child if she can guess the dwarf's name -- Rumpelstiltskin.

  Benton, Billy:  (1900-1973)  American government official, advertising 
        executive and US publisher of Encyclopaedia Britannica.

  Blu-Tack:  Sticky substance used for attaching posters to walls (for 
        those for whom chewing-gum doesn't quite do the trick).

  G & E drawing:  Geometric and Engineering Drawing.  A GCSE subject, also
        known as Technical Drawing (or Mechanical and Engineering Drawing
        at "O" Level).

  Aubusson rug:  Rug (usually flat-piled) which is handwoven at the 
        villages of Aubusson and Felletin in central France.

  Battle of Borodino:  French troops under Napoleon defeated the Russians
        under Kutusov, at Borodino in Russia on September 7th 1812.

  Come Jiving:  Perhaps a later version of the dance competition "Come

  George The Third:  (1738-1820)  King of Great Britain 1760-1820.  After 
        1765, George suffered increasingly from periodic bouts of 
        madness; after 1811 it was necessary for his son George to become
        Prince Regent.  George III's madness was apparently caused by the 
        incurable (and in those days, absolutely untreatable) genetic 
        disease porphyria.

  Kidd, Brian:  ([?]-  )  Assistant manager for Manchester United Football

  Planck, Max:  (1858-1947)  German physicist.

  Planck's Constant:  A constant which measures the size of quantum 
        effects in a system; h = 6.626196 x 10^-34.  And I'm sure we all
        know what that means.

  Merrick, John:  The Elephant Man.  And his name was actually 'Joseph'.

  Shangri-La:  A utopia in the mountains of Tibet, as described in the 
        novel "Lost Horizon" (1933), by James Hilton.  The term has now 
        become synonymous with any idyllic refuge.

  Champs Elysees:  Major avenue in Paris ville.  The name means Elysian 
        Fields, which in Greek mythology is the happy dwelling place of 
        virtuous souls after death.

  Sorbonne:  Major university of Paris.

  Louis XIV:  (1638-1715)  King of France 1643-1715.  Also known as the 
        Sun King.

  Picasso, Pablo:  (1881-1973)  Spanish artist, working in several styles 
        including Cubism and Surrealism.

  Ming (vase):  Blue and white porcelain produced during the reign of the 
        Ming dynasty in China, 1368-1644.

  Michelangelo (Buonarroti):  (1475-1564)  Italian painter and sculptor.  
        Famous works include the frescoes in the Sistine Chapel (1500s), 
        and the statue "David" (1501-1504).

  Matisse, Henri:  (1869-1954)  French painter, sculptor, designer and 

  Cezanne, Paul:  (1839-1906)  French Postimpressionist painter.

  Koh-i-noor:  Large diamond originally part of the Indian royal jewels, 
        now in the British collection.  The name is Persian for 'mountain 
        of light'.

  Marks And Spencer's:  British chain of stores, developed from 'penny 
        bazaar' origins.  Named for their developers, Simon Marks 
        (1888-1964; 1st Baron Broughton) and Tom Spencer ([?]).

  Burton group:  Montague Burton, a chain of men's clothing stores in
        the UK.

  Clavell, James:  (1924-  )  Australian born novelist, whose books 
        frequently top the 800-1200 page mark.  Works include "Tai-Pan"
        (1966), "Shogun" (1975; in excess of 1200 pages) and "Whirlwind"
        (1986; in excess of 1300 pages).

  Dom Perignon:  Champagne.  Dom Perignon was a Benedictine monk, the
        cellarmaster at the Abbey of Hautvillers in France (1668-1715).
        He developed the technique of secondary fermentation within the
        bottle that gives champagne its fizz (using strong bottles and
        corks for the first time, enabling the pressure to be contained).

  Lenin, Vladimir Ilyich:  (1870-1924)  Russian revolutionary communist 
        leader, came to power with the 1917 Bolshevik revolution and 
        became the first leader of the USSR under a communist doctrine he
        adapted from the principles of Marx.

  Archimedes:  (c.287-212 BC)  Greek mathematician.  Made major 
        discoveries in geometry, mechanics and hydrostatics.

  Wisdom, Norman:  (1920-  )  British comedian and actor.

  Gable, Clark:  (1901-1960)  American actor.  Films include "It Happened 
        One Night" (1934; and for which he won an Oscar), "Mutiny On The 
        Bounty" (1935), "Gone With The Wind" (1939), "Mogambo" (1953) and 
        "The Misfits" (1961; with Marilyn Monroe -- the last film for 
        both of them).

  The GPO Tower:  In London, and now known as the Telecom Tower, this
        construction is 189 metres (620 feet) tall.

  Lupino, Ida:  (1914-1995)  British-born American actress and director.  
        Films include "The Adventures Of Sherlock Holmes" (1939) and "The 
        Trouble With Angels" (1966); also directed several TV shows 
        including "The Donna Reed Show" and "Dr. Kildare".

  Hill, Benny:  (1925-1992)  British comedian.  Actually he was quite 
        clever and witty, but is mostly remembered for toilet and sex-
        allusion jokes, particularly sketches which consisted largely of
        the 'humour' of having women in various states of undress being 
        chased around by men of lascivious intent.

  Dancer and Prancer:  Obviously named after two of Santa Claus's eight 
        reindeer; the others being Comet, Cupid, Donner, Vixen, Dasher 
        and Blitzen (Rudolf only being used in real pea-soupers).

  Grappelli, Stephane:  (1908-  )  French-born jazz violinist.

  Parker, Charlie:  (1920-1955)  American saxophone player, composer and 

  Menuhin, Yehudi:  (1916-  )  American violinist.

  Rich, Buddy:  (1917-1987)  American drummer and bandleader.

  Jellybean:  ([?]-  )  John Benitez.  American producer, remixer and 
        general dance music expert.  Has released his own albums but is
        probably best-known for the artists he has worked with; eg. 
        Blondie, Whitney Houston, Billy Joel, The Pointer Sisters and 

  **  Bloody Mary:  This drink was named after Mary I (1516-1558), Queen
        of England 1553-1558.  A Catholic, Mary earned the nickname 
        'Bloody Mary' for the zeal she showed in trying to destroy 
        Protestant 'heretics'; in particular for the period 1555-1558 
        during which she had 283 Protestant martyrs burned.

  **  "Would you like to be turned into a pillar of salt?":  In the Bible 
        (Genesis 19), God causes the depraved cities of Sodom and 
        Gomorrah to be destroyed.  He permits the man Lot and his family
        to escape, but they are warned not to look back on the cities'
        destruction.  Lot's wife disobeys this order, and upon looking
        back, she is turned immediately into a pillar of salt.

  **  "I want to visit strange new worlds, to seek out new life and new 
        civilisations.  To boldly go where no person has gone before.":  
        Okay, we all know this one.  Obviously Lister is a fan of "Star 
        Trek" -- good to see him using a non-sexist version of the 
        opening spiel, a la "The Next Generation" (and beyond?).

  **  Perry N'Kwomo:  An African balladeer with not only a similar name 
        to that of the 20th century American singer Perry Como (1912-  ),
        but apparently a similar nice 'n' nauseating style...

  **  Exorcist sick:  This is really being sick in a *major* way.  In the 
        American movie "The Exorcist" (1973), starring Ellen Burstyn and 
        Linda Blair, a young girl (Blair) is possessed by demons, and one 
        of the messier side effects of this is the tendency to projectile-
        vomit all sorts of unspeakable green goo.

  **  It wasn't a face that could launch a thousand ships:  A reference 
        to Helen of Troy, said to be the most beautiful woman ever, and 
        who *did* have a face that could launch a thousand ships.  From 
        this we get the unit of measurement for beauty in a woman: the 
        milli-Helen -- defined as the beauty needed to launch one ship 
        (no I'm not making this up, some *other* idiot thought of this 

  **  Saachi, Saachi, Saachi, Saachi, Saachi, and Saachi:  A future firm
        of copycat-name advertisers, not to be confused with Saatchi &
        Saatchi Worldwide Advertising.

  **  "I serve, therefore I am.":  Variation on "I think, therefore I am" 
        by Rene Descartes.

  **  And a certain canned food company beginning with 'H'...:  Beanz 
        Meanz Heinz.

  **  "Thank you, Sigmund.":  Rimmer thinks that Lister fancies himself
        a bit of a psychoanalyst, a la Sigmund Freud.  See above.

  **  The Fab Five:  Of course, without Lister, The Beatles -- Paul 
        McCartney, John Lennon, Ringo Starr (1940-  ) and George 
        Harrison (1943-  ) -- were only the Fab Four.


        PARALLEL  --  For the game Better Than Life, Frank Capra's movie 
  "It's A Wonderful Life" (1946).

  Kennedy, John F(itzgerald):  (1917-1963)  35th President of the USA, 
        1961-1963 (Democrat).  The youngest president elected, and also 
        a Roman Catholic (though despite this, *quite* a womaniser).  
        Assassinated by Lee Harvey Oswald in Dallas, Texas, November 1963.

  Louis XVI:  (1754-1793)  King of France 1774-1793.  After the French 
        Revolution in 1789, Louis and his family lost power, but not 
        until 1792 were the Royal Family taken prisoner by the French 
        government.  After being tried for treason, Louis was guillotined
        in 1793.

  Alka-Seltzer:  An anti-indigestion mixture.

  Presley, Elvis:  (1935-1977)  The King is (officially!) dead.  Long 
        live the King!

  Nitti, Frank 'The Enforcer':  (c.1896-1943)  Chicago gangster.  Al 
        Capone's chief enforcer and head of Capone's empire after Capone 
        went to prison (1931).  Nitti was indicted for extortion but shot
        himself before the indictment was handed down.

  Caligula:  (12-41)  Gaius Caesar.  Mentally unstable, cruel and 
        depraved Emperor of Rome (37-41).  Besides his depravity, 
        cruelty and incestual excesses, Caligula ('Little Boots') also 
        made a consul of his favourite horse Incitatus.  Finally an 
        officer of the guard could stand this sort of rot no longer, and
        so Caligula was assassinated.

  The Sphinx:  In Egyptian mythology, a sphinx was a creature with the
        body of a lion and the head of a man.  What Rimmer has love-
        bitten is the statue of the Great Sphinx at Giza in Egypt.  The
        Sphinx's face is believed to be that of King Khafre (c.2500 BC),
        whose nearby pyramid the Sphinx was originally set to guard.

  The Raj:  Name for the period of British rule in India before Indian 
        independence in 1947.

  James, Jesse:  (1847-1882)  American outlaw (bank, stagecoach and train 
        robber).  His gang included his brother Frank (who was tried and 
        acquitted twice, before becoming a farmer); and later the outlaw 
        Bob Ford, who finally shot and killed Jesse James in order to 
        collect on his reward money.

  Harley Davidson:  Type of motorbike.  The first Harley Davidson was 
        produced in 1903 in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, by the team of William
        Harley and Arthur Davidson (later joined by his brothers Walter
        and William Davidson).

  Louis Quinze:  Descriptive of the styles of art and interior design 
        prominent during the reign of Louis XV (1710-1774), King of 
        France (1715-1774).  Two major styles -- Regency and rococo --
        flourished during this period.

  Morning Has Broken:  Song recorded by Cat Stevens (also a hymn).

  Nantucket:  Island which constitutes the southeasternmost point of 

  Irma La Douce:  (1963)  American film starring Shirley MacLaine and Jack 
        Lemmon.  A Paris prostitute (Irma) and a policeman fall in love,
        and he becomes her pimp.

  Buddha:  (c.563-483 BC)  'The Enlightened One', title of Nepalese 
        Prince Gautama Siddhartha.  Went from a life of luxury to one of 
        asceticism before turning to meditation, after which he achieved 
        enlightenment while sitting under a bo tree in India.  His 
        teaching founded the religion of Buddhism.

  Saint Bernard:  Breed of dog famed for rescuing lost mountaineers.  The 
        breed was developed at the Swiss monasteries of the Hospice of 
        Saint Bernard (founded by Saint Bernard of Menthon -- 923-1008 --
        who is the patron saint of mountaineers).

  Haydn, Franz Joseph:  (1732-1809)  Austrian composer and master of the 
        string quartet.  Also a teacher of both Mozart and Beethoven.

  Mary Celeste:  American sailing ship found abandoned in the Atlantic 
        Ocean in 1872.  Only some navigation instruments, the cargo 
        charts, and the human crew were missing (never found), with no 
        indication of why they might have left the otherwise-intact ship.

  Marie Antoinette:  (1755-1793)  Queen of Louis XVI of France.  Her 
        alleged extravagance helped to provoke the French Revolution in 
        1789.  In 1793 she was tried for treason, and then guillotined 
        along with her husband.

  Bonaparte, Josephine:  (1763-1814)  Wife of Napoleon Bonaparte, and 
        Empress of France (1804-1810).

  Marcos, Imelda:  (1930-  )  Filipino politician, and wife of ex-
        President of the Philippines, Ferdinand Marcos.  Perhaps most 
        famous for her *extensive* collection of shoes...

  Taylor, Elizabeth:  (1932-  )  British-born American actress, eight 
        times married and counting.  Films include "National Velvet" 
        (1944), "Giant" (1956), "Cat On A Hot Tin Roof" (1958), 
        "Butterfield 8" (1960; Oscar-winning) and "Who's Afraid Of 
        Virginia Woolf?" (1968; Oscar-winning).  Recently seen in "The 
        Flintstones" (1994) as the mother of Wilma Flintstone (the 
        sexiest woman who ever lived -- in all probability).

  Cooper, Gary:  (1901-1961)  American actor, the archetypal 'Hollywood 
        hero'.  Films include "Mr. Deeds Goes To Town" (1936; Oscar-
        nominated), "For Whom The Bell Tolls" (1943; Oscar-nominated) 
        and "High Noon" (1952; for which he won his second Oscar).

  Cagney, James:  (1899-1986)  Intense American actor.  Films include 
        "Yankee Doodle Dandy" (1942; for which he won an Oscar), "Love Me 
        Or Leave Me" (1955) and "Man Of A Thousand Faces" (1957).

  Saran-wrap:  Wrap for keeping food fresh; aka cling-wrap, aka Glad-wrap, 
        aka bastard-plastic-from-hell-that-I-can-never-get-to-work-in-a-

  The Great Gatsby:  Title character of a retired gangster in the novel 
        "The Great Gatsby" (1925) by F. Scott Fitzgerald.

  Da Vinci, Leonardo:  (1452-1519)  Italian artist, scientist and 
        inventor.  Works include the paintings "The Last Supper" (1495) 
        and the "Mona Lisa" (1503-1506).  Sketches of his inventions show
        plans for 'tanks', 'aeroplanes', 'submarines', a 'helicopter' 
        and even the first 'bicycle'.

  Shrove Tuesday (Christian):  The day before the beginning of Lent.

  Ascension (Sunday?):  Ascension Thursday is the feast day commemorating
        Christ's ascension into Heaven.

  Pentecost (Christian):   The day the Apostles experienced inspiration 
        by the Holy Spirit.  Commemorated on Whit Sunday.

  Bootle:  Town near Liverpool, England.

  Robeson, Paul:  (1898-1976)  American bass (called baritone) singer, 
        and sometime actor.

  Lamb, Charles:  (1775-1834)  British essayist and critic.

  Bacon, Sir Francis:  (1561-1626)  English politician, philosopher and

  Wouk, Herman:  (1915-  )  American novelist, and winner of the Pulitzer
        Prize (1952) for "The Caine Mutiny" (1951); more recent novels 
        include "The Winds Of War" (1971) and "War And Remembrance"

  Pinter, Harold:  (1930-  )  British dramatist and former actor.  Author
        of "The Caretaker" (1960).

  Lustbader, Eric (Van):  ([?]-  )  American novelist, and music 
        industry influence (eg. introduced Elton John into the American 
        music scene).

  Marx, Groucho:  (1890-1977)  One of the Marx Brothers (others were 
        Chico, Zeppo and Harpo), a team of American comedy actors very
        successful during the 1930s.  Groucho was characterised by big
        glasses, big eyebrows, a big moustache and a big cigar.  Films
        include "Duck Soup" (1933), "A Night At The Opera" (1935) and 
        "A Day At The Races" (1937).

  Dumont, Margaret:  (1889-1965)  American Broadway and screen actress, 
        best-known for her work with the Marx Brothers, with whom she 
        co-starred in seven films (popularly as the target of Groucho's 
        affections/insults); including "Duck Soup" (1933), "A Night At The
        Opera" (1935) and "A Day At The Races" (1937).

  Cubism:  Art movement founded by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso in the
        early 20th century, pioneering the concepts of abstract art in 
        that art need not reflect reality.

  Washington, George:  (1732-1799)  First President of the USA 
        (1789-1797), after the American War Of Independence (1775-1783).  
        Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson resigned in 1793, creating
        the two-party system.

  Jefferson, Thomas:  (1743-1826)  Founder of the Democratic Republican 
        Party, and 3rd President of the USA (1801-1809).  Also largely 
        responsible for drafting up the American Declaration Of 

  Roosevelt, Theodore:  (1858-1919)  26th President of the USA 
        (1901-1909), a Republican.

  Mount Rushmore:  American National Memorial at Black Hills, South 
        Dakota.  The heads of Washington (representing the nation's 
        founding), Jefferson (philosophy), Lincoln (unity) and T. 
        Roosevelt (expansion) are carved from the granite of the mountain.
        The construction was created and supervised (1927-1941) by Gutzon
        Borglum, and each head is approximately 18 metres (60 feet) high.

  Oppenheimer, J(ulius) Robert:  (1904-1967)  American physicist; in 
        charge of the development of the atomic bomb (the Manhattan 

  Gorgons:  Three hideous sisters of Greek mythology, having live snakes 
        instead of hair.  Two of the sisters (Stheno and Euryale) are 
        immortal; the third sister Medusa was mortal, but she alone had 
        the power to turn to stone anyone upon whom she gazed.

  El Greco:  (1541-1614)  Domenikos Theotokopoulos, Greek Spanish-style 
        painter, sculptor and architect.

  Mount Everest:  In the Himalayas, the tallest mountain in the world at 
        8872 metres (29118 feet) high.

  Queen Isabella of Spain:  (1830-1904)  Isabella II, Queen of Spain (as 
        opposed to Isabella I, Queen of Castile -- before the unification
        of Castile and Aragon into Spain) 1833-1868.

  Goodman, Benny:  (1909-1986)  The 'King Of Swing'; American clarinet-
        player and bandleader.

  World Cup:  Premier international football competition.

  Romeo And Juliet:  Play by William Shakespeare, about two star-crossed 
        lovers (Romeo of Montague and Juliet of Capulet) from feuding 
        families.  Each one, believing the other to be dead, commits 
        suicide --  Romeo by poison and Juliet by stabbing herself.  
        Sigh...nothing like an old-fashioned love story...

  Fosbury Flop:  Method of clearing the bar for the high jump, pioneered 
        by American high jumper Dick Fosbury (1947-  ) who won Olympic 
        gold using his technique in Mexico City, 1968.  The Fosbury Flop
        is now the standard high jump leap, totally replacing the less-
        effective scissor-leaps and rolls.

  Mansfield, Jayne:  (1932-1967)  American Blonde Bombshell actress, she 
        of the *very* curvaceous figure.  Best-known films "The Girl 
        Can't Help It" (1956), "Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?" (1957) 
        and "The Sheriff Of Fractured Jaw" (1959).  She died in a car 
        accident in which she was decapitated.

  Deely-boppers:  Toy "antennae", balls (or other novelty shapes such
        as stars or hearts) on springs attached to a headband.

  **  Marie and the dauphin:  Marie is Marie Antoinette, wife of Louis XVI 
        of France.  The dauphin is their son, prince of France and heir to
        the throne -- in this case, Louis (1785-1795), who became heir to 
        the throne after the death of his older brother in 1789.  Louis 
        was proclaimed Louis XVII after the execution of his father, but 
        this was a nominal title only and the boy remained a prisoner of 
        the Revolution until he died.

  **  A personal hat-trick:  Originating from the game of cricket, a hat-
        trick is when a bowler dismisses three consecutive batsmen off 
        three consecutive balls (this is a rare, nay freak, occurrence --
        it has only been done 21 times in the history of test cricket).  
        From this then, one can only assume that the Cat has *pulverised*
        three cute furry creatures in quick succession.  Sounds like a job
        for the RSPCCFC to me.

  **  For it is harder for a droid who disbelieveth to pass through the 
        gates of Silicon Heaven, than it is for a DIN-DIN coaxial cable
        to connect up to a standard European SCART socket:  The 
        electronics of this totally escapes me, but the theological parallel 
        is with the Bible phrase along the lines of "And I say again to you, 
        it is easier for a camel to pass through the eye of a needle than
        for a rich man to enter the kingdom of God", variations of which
        can be found in Matthew 19:24, Mark 10:25 and Luke 18:25.

  **  This was the fridge that the Great Gatsby flung open when Daisy came
        calling:  Daisy was Gatsby's married lover, the woman he'd loved
        and lost and yearned for for five years.  When their affair 
        resumed, Gatsby worshipped Daisy and was always trying to make 
        everything perfect for when they were together.  There is no
        specific mention of a fridge; however there is a parallel in a
        scene in which Daisy visits Gatsby, and Gatsby throws open his
        wardrobe to reveal rows of suits, new shirts, etc.

  **  The Cat's smile entered the room, followed by the Cat himself:  From 
        this I deduce that the Cat's early ancestors were from Chester, 
        as this is the kind of thing that the Cheshire Cat (from Lewis 
        Carroll's novel "Alice's Adventures In Wonderland", 1865) could 
        and would do.

  **  The format of the voting for Garbage World contest:  Is the same as 
        that for the Eurovision Song Contest, an annual event where the 
        performances of contestants from several European countries are 
        broadcast to juries around Europe; the voting comes in in exactly 
        the format of the Garbage World competition, even down to 
        "Germany, two points.  Allemagne, deux points."

  **  Lister's discovery of Mount Rushmore, telling him that Garbage World 
        is in fact Earth:  Eerily reminiscent of the final moments of the 
        American movie "Planet Of The Apes" (1968, starring Charlton 
        Heston and Roddy McDowall), in which Taylor (Heston) discovers 
        the ruins of the Statue Of Liberty on the beach, and realises that
        this horrific ape-dominated planet he is stranded on is in fact 
        Earth's fate.


        PARALLEL  --  For Cyberia; the vast isolated northern area (much 
  'wasteland' and sparsely populated) of Russia called Siberia.  From the 
  early 17th century, Siberia was used as a penal colony and general 
  'dumping ground' for criminals and political prisoners (not all of whom
  would have shared the same degree of 'guilt').

  Coward, Noel:  (1899-1973)  British playwright, director, actor, 
        composer and producer.  Well-known play -- "Private Lives" (1930).

  Hush-puppies:  Type of shoes.

  Formby, George:  (1904-1961)  British singing comedian, ukelele 
        player, and sometime actor in comedy/musical films of the 1930s 
        and 1940s.

  Gone With The Wind:  (1939)  American movie about love during the 
        American Civil War.  Starring Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh.  A 
        run-time of three hours and forty minutes.

  Grand Canyon:  Enormous gorge in Arizona, USA, carved out of stratified 
        rock by the Colorado River.  Famous for its beauty, grandeur, and 
        treasure hunts to find the remains of Thelma and Louise.  If 
        Lister's smile is really this big though, then that's about 350 
        kilometres (217 miles) long, between six and 29 kilometres (4-18 
        miles) wide, and over 1.7 kilometres (1.1 miles) deep.

  Lagos:  Chief port and former capital of Nigeria (Abuja became capital
        in 1991).

  Hubble, Edwin Powell:  (1889-1953)  American astronomer who discovered
        galaxies outside of the Milky Way, and proposed the 'expanding 
        universe' theory.  The powerful Hubble Space Telescope in orbit
        around the Earth (since 1990) is named for him, as are presumably
        the smaller Hubbles on board the Starbugs.  Here's hoping that 
        *their* mirrors were aligned properly...

  Paul, Les:  (1915-1995)  American guitarist and inventor.

  Aztec:  Mexican American Indian people who lived around the site of 
        modern-day Mexico City from about the 12th century to the 16th 
        century; the arrival of the Spanish conquistadors in 1519 led to 
        the ultimate destruction of the Aztecs.

  Diamond, Neil:  (1941-  )  American singer/songwriter.  Hits include 
        "Cracklin' Rosie", "Sweet Caroline", "Song Sung Blue" and "You 
        Don't Bring Me Flowers" (duet with Barbra Streisand).

  Hamilton Academicals:  Scottish League football club.  Losing finalists
        in the 1911 and 1935 Scottish Cups.

  Jacobean furniture:  Style of furniture during the reign of James I 
        (1566-1625), King of Great Britain (1603-1625).  In the 
        Elizabethan style which preceded it, but with broader classical
        lines and adopting many Renaissance motifs.

  Dirty Dozen, The:  (1967)  American/Spanish movie set during World War
        II, about a commando suicide squad recruited from lifer convicts 
        (starring Lee Marvin and Charles Bronson).  Novel by E.M.

  Moss Bro(ther)s:  Clothing/suit hire establishment.

  Bactrian camel:  Camel with two humps.  Originated in the region of 
        Bactria, an area of Asia divided between modern Pakistan, 
        Afghanistan and Tajikstan.

  Har Megiddo:  Alternative spelling for Armageddon, the site of the 
        final battle of nations that will lead to the end of the world 
        (the Bible, Revelation 16:16).

  Bader, Sir Douglas:  (1910-1982)  British fighter pilot.  Bader lost 
        both of his legs in an aviation accident in 1931, but went on to 
        successfully fly missions during World War II.  For his work with 
        disabled people he was knighted in 1976.

  Beethoven, Ludwig van:  (1770-1827)  German composer, conductor and 
        pianist; continued composing even after being afflicted with 
        deafness in 1801.

  The Frog Prince:  Fairy tale adapted by the Brothers Grimm, in which a 
        prince under an evil spell (which has turned him into a frog) 
        breaks the spell, becomes human once more, wins the love of a 
        princess and they both live happily ever after.  And they don't 
        write 'em like *that* any more.

  Cartesian coordinates:  Components of a geometric system to show the 
        position of a point on a plane (x, y coordinates) or in space 
        (x, y, z coordinates).  Named for their originator, Rene 
        Descartes.  Yes, him again.

  The Mayflower:  Name of the ship on which the Pilgrims first sailed in
        1620, from Plymouth in England to America (in present-day 
        Massachusetts) where they founded the Plymouth colony and 

  Andromeda:  The galaxy is named for Andromeda of Greek mythology, an 
        Ethiopian princess whose mother boasted of her daughter's beauty
        to jealous ears.  Andromeda was sentenced by the sea god Poseidon
        to be devoured by a sea-monster, but was saved by the hero 
        Perseus in exchange for her hand in marriage.

  Nixon, Richard Milhous:  (1913-1994)  37th President (1969-74) of the 
        USA, a Republican.  He resigned over scandals including his 
        involvement in the Watergate cover-up.

  Avogadro, Amadeo:  (1776-1856)  Italian physicist and chemist, and 
        inventor of the term 'molecule'.  Avogadro's Law states that 
        equal volumes of all gases (which are at the same temperature 
        and pressure) will have the same numbers of molecules. 

  West Point:  Former fort in New York state, and a military outpost 
        since 1778.  Site of the US Military Academy (called West Point), 
        established 1802.

  Chitty Chitty Bang Bang:  (1968)  British children's film about 
        adventures with an inventor's magical old car.  Starring Dick Van
        Dyke and Lionel Jeffries.

  Dralon:  Trademark name of an acrylic (German polyacrylonitrile fibre),
        velvety material, used chiefly for furnishings and curtains.

  The Real McCoy:  Phrase meaning 'the real thing' or 'the genuine 
        article'.  As to its origins, well take your pick.  An 1896 
        welterweight-champion boxer (Charles 'Kid') McCoy distinguishing 
        himself from another boxing (Al) McCoy, or just simply proving
        himself, seems popular.  As is the idea that the phrase refers 
        to a Prohibition liquor smuggler -- maybe a McCoy who could be 
        trusted to bring in the Good Stuff (in a similar vein, perhaps a
        moonshine maker who was supposed to be the best).  Then again, 
        the phrase may predate all American references and be a mutation 
        of some reference from British/Irish/Australian sources.  Who 
        knows?  We could just make something up ourselves (and frankly,
        there seem to be so many possible derivations that I'm beginning
        to think there's no such thing as *fake* McCoys -- outside of 
        that Gary Larson cartoon of course...).

  Quantel:  Video effect whereby a sequence of footage is split into a
        series of discrete single-image frames.  Also, the manufacturers
        of a high-quality 2D painting and animation software/hardware

  Como, Perry:  (1912-  )  American singer, and sometime actor and TV 
        variety show host.  Hits included many songs from movies, such as 
        "Blue Moon" (from "Words And Music", 1958) and the No. 1 "Some 
        Enchanted Evening" (from "South Pacific", 1949).  Although, my
        hopelessly inadequate book fails utterly to mention what was 
        stashed in his slacks during the singing of "Memories Are Made Of

  Disney, Walt:  (1901-1966)  American cartoonist, moviemaker, theme park
        developer and general all-round genius.  Creator of Mickey Mouse, 
        Donald Duck, Goofy and others; developed quality animated 
        features, and created Disneyland, the Happiest Place on Earth.  
        (Yes, I am a fan!)

  Darwin, Charles:  (1809-1882)  British scientist who proposed (1859) the 
        Theory Of Evolution, whereby species develop over time after 
        processes of mutation and adaptation for natural selection.  
        Darwin's Theory caused great controversy because it goes directly 
        against the Christian doctrine of Creation.

  Ursa Major constellation:  The Great Bear (or Big Dipper) -- the third 
        largest constellation in the sky, so that's one big scar.

  Hallowe'en:  October 31, immediately preceding the Christian feast of 
        All Saints' Day.  Traditionally the time of children dressing in 
        ghoulish outfits and hunting in packs for suitable prey with 
        which to destroy their teeth.

  Perth:  Town of eastern Scotland, north of Edinburgh.

  Henry VIII:  (1491-1547)  King of England 1509-1547.  Created the 
        Church of England (1534) when Rome refused to annul his first 
        marriage to his brother's widow.  He went on to marry five more 
        times; two of his wives were beheaded for adultery.  He was 
        succeeded by Edward VI, his son by his third wife Jane Seymour.

  Laurel, Stan:  (1890-1965)  Born in England as Arthur Stanley 
        Jefferson.  Thin partner in the American comedy duo Laurel and
        Hardy, who had great popular success in over 200 films during
        the late 1920s to mid-1940s.  Hilarity came from how they set one 
        another off -- Stan was the worrier and bumbler, Ollie the 
        fastidious one with the slow-burning temper.

  Hardy, Oliver:  (1892-1957)  Rotund partner in the American comedy duo 
        Laurel and Hardy (see immediately preceding).

  Victoria:  (1819-1901)  Queen of Great Britain 1837-1901.  Longest-
        reigning British monarch, and called 'Grandmother of Europe' by 
        virtue of the marriages of her nine children and their descendants
        into the royal houses of Europe.

  Ulysses:  Roman name for the Greek mythological hero Odysseus.  Hero of 
        the Trojan War, subject of Homer's "Odyssey" and also appearing 
        in his "Iliad".

  Melba toast:  Type of toast named after Australian opera singer Dame 
        Nellie Melba (1859-1931).

  Edward II:  (1284-1327)  King of England 1307-1327.  Incompetent king 
        and reputed homosexual, Edward was deposed by his wife Isabella 
        and her lover Roger Mortimer in 1327.  Edward then conveniently 
        'died' soon afterwards -- allegedly he was disembowelled with a 
        red-hot poker inserted via his rectum (a favoured 'punishment' 
        death for homosexuals, and also a method not to leave obvious 
        evidence of murder).

  Danny Boy:  Song recorded by several people, including Jim Reeves and
        Bing Crosby.

  Apollo:  American space program operating between 1968 and 1975 which 
        aimed for and achieved the objective of landing a man on the 
        Moon.  The rockets which launched the Apollo spacecrafts were 
        the two- or three-stage Saturn rockets. 

  **            Cat:  "There's an old Cat proverb -- 'It's better to live
                  one hour as a tiger, than a whole lifetime as a worm."
                Rimmer:  "There's an old human saying -- 'Whoever heard 
                  of a worm-skin rug?'."
        Lines from the second pilot of Red Dwarf USA.
                Cat (Terry Farrell):  "There's an old Cat proverb that 
                  says it's better to live an hour as a tiger, than a 
                  lifetime as a worm."
                Rimmer (Anthony Fuscle):  "There's an old human saying --
                  'Whoever heard of a wormskin rug?'."

  **  The Deformed Dozen:  Not so much 'unwashed' as incomplete...  A 
        droid 'suicide' squad a la the suicide squad of the movie "The 
        Dirty Dozen" (1967).

  **  Sacer Facere:  From the Latin 'sacra facere', meaning 'sacrifice'.

  **  The Rimmerteer:  Rimmer's version of The Rocketeer, the rocket-
        pack-wearing character who foils Nazi world domination plans in 
        1938 (American film of the same name, 1991, starring Timothy 
        Dalton; adapted from the novel by Dave Stevens).


        PARALLEL  --  For the Artificial Reality western sequences, 
  and parodied in the title of Part Five "High Midnight", the American 
  film "High Noon" (1952) starring Gary Cooper (who won a Best Actor 
  Oscar for the role) and Grace Kelly.  A marshal must take on alone
  a gang of men bent on revenge -- no one wants to be deputy to the 
  marshal (save one boy who has faith but not age on his side) and so 
  he is forsaken by the townspeople.

  Herman Munster:  Character portrayed by Fred Gwynne (1926-1993) in the 
        TV series "The Munsters" (also two spin-off films).  Herman 
        Munster was a caricature of the Frankenstein's monster a la 
        Boris Karloff.

  Saint Francis of Assisi:  (1182-1226)  Founder of the Franciscan Friars.
        All-round animal lover (healing the sick ones and taming the wild 
        ones) and patron saint of ecologists. 

  Astaire, Fred:  (1899-1987)  US actor/dancer, best remembered for such
        films as "Top Hat" (1935) and "The Barkleys Of Broadway" (1949)
        with popular professional partner Ginger Rogers.  Other films
        include "Easter Parade" (1948), "Funny Face" (1957) and "The 
        Towering Inferno" (1974, for which he was Oscar-nominated).

  SWAT Team:  Special Weapons And Tactics Team.

  Jethro Clampett:  Jethro Bodine, a cousin of the Clampetts, was a 
        not-so-bright hillbilly character played in the 1960s American 
        TV series "The Beverly Hillbillies" by Max Baer Jr. (1937-  ).

  Mile High Club:  Members of this club are those who have managed to have
        sex in an aeroplane cruising at or above this height.

  Sasquatch:  Native name for the North American Indian legend of 
        "Bigfoot", a mysterious and elusive creature supposedly roaming
        the forests of the Pacific Northwestern USA; in the same class 
        as the Yeti of Tibet and the Yowie of Australia, all the 
        existences of which remain unproved.

  Asimov, Isaac:  (1920-1992)  Russian-born US scientific writer and 
        science-fiction author.  Credited with popularising the concept
        and word of 'robot' in the English language.

  Asimov's Robotic Laws:  Laws created by Isaac Asimov as the rules under
        which the robots of his science-fiction stories can and must 
        behave.  There are three Laws of Robotics; they are reproduced
        here from Asimov's book "Robot Visions" (1990, Byron Preiss 
        Visual Publications, Inc) --
          1)  A robot may not injure a human being, or, through inaction, 
        allow a human being to come to harm
          2)  A robot must obey the orders given it by human beings  
        except where such orders would conflict with the First Law
          3)  A robot must protect its own existence as long as such 
        protection does not conflict with the First or Second Law.

  Bedlam:  Slang word meaning chaos.  Derived from the name of the 
        earliest mental hospital in Britain (Bedlam, aka Bethlehem) 
        which opened in 14th century London but today is located in 

  Krypton:  Home planet of Kal-El, who as an expatriot of this planet 
        now living on Earth, is in both ability and name, Superman 
        (created by Jerry Seigel and Joe Shuster in 1933/1934).

  Tom Brown's Schooldays:  English children's novel (1857) by Thomas
        Hughes, which told the story of Tom's adventures as a pupil
        at Rugby School (the same school which gave its name to the 
        game that originated there in 1823).

  Saint Christopher:  The patron saint of travellers.  Legend has 
        it that Christopher was a 3rd century Christian martyr of 
        Anatolia who carried travellers across a river.  One day he
        found himself carrying the Christ Child who was very heavy 
        with all the troubles of the world.  Medals with Christopher 
        and the Christ Child's figures on are carried by travellers 
        for safeguard on their journeys.

  Land Of The Giants:  Late 1960s US science-fiction series about
        seven people transported to a world in which they were as
        Lilliputians to Gulliver.

  Famous Five:  Series of children's books by English author Enid 
        Blyton, about four children (Julian, Dick, and Anne and their
        cousin Georgina, called George) and George's dog Timmy, who
        played at amateur detectives to solve many mysteries and thwart 
        many nasty people's less-than-honest plots.

  Lothario:  Word to describe a gay deceiver or libertine.  Named for a 
        character in "Fair Penitent" by Rowe [?].

  Magic Eye:  Dot and pattern autostereogram pictures popularised by N.E. 
        Thing Enterprises.  You know, those things you stare at for hours
        trying to see the picture in the mess of dots and colour, while 
        an infuriating number of people come up, stare for 30 seconds,
        say "Wow, isn't that great?" a lot and guarantee that you'll keep
        looking just a *little* bit longer.  (Gloat mode:  *I* can see
        'em, hehehehe.)

  Pollock, Jackson:  (1912-1956)  American painter.  Developer of the 
        painting style known as 'action painting' (1946).  Also a pioneer 
        of Abstract Expressionism.  (Or put more simply, paintings that 
        look like brains a la splatter.)

  Nobel Prize:  Prize awarded annually (began 1901) as recognition for 
        great achievements in several areas, including Peace, Literature 
        and Medicine.  Named after their instigator, Alfred Nobel (1833-
        1896), a Swedish engineer and chemist who invented dynamite 

  Last Post:  Military send-off musical piece, usually played on the 

  Jovian:  Descriptive of the planet Jupiter.

  The Dam Busters:  1954 British film (starring Michael Redgrave) about 
        the WWII bombing of the German Ruhr River dams (1943) using Dr. 
        Wallis's bouncing bombs.

  Churchill, Sir Winston:  (1874-1965)  British Prime Minister 
        (Conservative Party) 1940-1945, 1951-1955.  Also winner of the 
        Nobel Prize for Literature, 1953.  'Trademarks' were the V for 
        Victory sign, and a large cigar.

  Ebenezer Scrooge:  Miserly character in Charles Dickens's "A Christmas
        Carol" (1843) who reforms for Christmas Day after revelatory 
        and warning visitations by ghosts on Christmas Eve.

  Zapata, Emiliano ("Viva"):  (1879-1919)  Mexican Indian revolutionary
        leader, and grower of a luxuriously bushy handlebar-type 

  Mr. Magoo:  Cartoon character of a 1950s American cartoon (voiced 
        by Jim Backus -- 1913-1989 -- well-known as Mr. Howell in 
        "Gilligan's Island").  Magoo was always getting into trouble
        because of his extreme short-sightedness, but always managed
        to emerge unscathed.

  Devil's Island:  Harsh-conditioned former penal settlement off the 
        coast of French Guiana, South America.

  Alcatraz:  The Rock.  Island in San Francisco Bay, formerly the site 
        of a maximum-security penitentiary for "difficult" prisoners.  
        Closed in 1963.

  Hawking, Stephen:  (1942-  )  English physicist.  Best-known work is
        "A Brief History Of Time" (1988).

  Richter Scale:  Scale used for measuring the seismic waves of 
        earthquakes in order to determine the magnitude of the 
        earthquake at its centre.  Named for its developer, US 
        seismologist Charles Richter (1900-1985).

  Nureyev, Rudolph:  (1938-1993)  Brilliant Russian ballet dancer and 
        choreographer, dancing first for the Russian Kirov and then
        for the Royal Ballet (London) after his defection in 1961.
        Widely regarded as one of the best dancers ever.  Well, I think 
        so, and I'm the one writing this thing.

  Old King Cole:  Character in a children's rhyme.  A merry old soul who
        called for his pipe, bowl and fiddlers (three).

  Wilde, Oscar:  (1854-1900)  Irish writer famous for his witty work and 
        quotable conversation.  Famous works include his only novel "The 
        Picture Of Dorian Gray" (1891) and several plays, including "The 
        Importance Of Being Earnest" (1895).

  Olympic Games:  Yes, I think we all know what these are by now.  I'd 
        just like to say "Praise be!" to Baron de Coubertin for reviving 
        them.  See you in Sydney 2000!  :-)

  Mrs. Danvers:  Character in the novel "Rebecca" (1938) by Daphne du 
        Maurier [?].

  Nurse Ratched:  Dispassionate state mental-hospital nurse character in
        Ken Kesey's novel "One Flew Over The Cuckoo's Nest" (1962).  
        Louise Fletcher won a Best Actress Oscar for the role in the 
        1975 American film of the book (in which Jack Nicholson co-
        starred and also won an Oscar, for Best Actor).

  Wimbledon:  Lawn-tennis tournament (and the name of the centre in 
        England at which the tournament is held).

  Glenn, John:  (1921-  )  Astronaut, the first American to orbit the 
        Earth (20 February 1962) for just under five hours, in the 
        Mercury spacecraft Friendship 7.

  Oates, Captain Laurence Edward Grace:  (1880-1912)  British Antarctic 
 explorer, one of the party accompanying Robert Falcon Scott on 
 the second expedition to the South Pole.  After reaching the Pole
 in January 1912, the party was trapped by extreme blizzards on 
 their return journey to their supply depot.  Oates, suffering 
 from severe frostbite and believing that the others would have a 
 better chance of surviving if not held back by him, went out into
 the storms for his 'legendary walk'.  His last words were recorded
 in Scott's diary (see below).

  Scott, Robert Falcon:  (1868-1912)  British naval officer and explorer 
 who led the second expedition to reach the South Pole (success in 
 January, 1912).  On the return journey all five members of the 
 party perished.  Their bodies and records were found in November 
 of that year.  Scott's diary, one of the surviving records, 
 contains the last words of Captain Oates, spoken as Oates left 
 the shelter for the last time.  As noted by Scott in the diary, 
 entry 16-17 March 1912, Oates said "I am just going outside and 
 may be some time."

  Stromboli:  [?]

  1812 Overture:  Composed by Russian composer Peter Ilich Tchaikovsky in 

  Flynn, Errol:  (1909-1959)  Australian-born Hollywood actor.  Popular 
        in 'swashbuckling' roles, his films include "Captain Blood" 
        (1935), "The Adventures Of Robin Hood" (1938) and "The Sea Hawk" 

  Munchkin:  One of the little people in the American film "The Wizard 
        Of Oz" (1939) starring Judy Garland.  From the novels by L. Frank

  Captain Courageous:  [?]

  The Scarlet Pimpernel:  Title character of the novel (1905) by 
        Baroness Emmuska Orczy, about the English aristocrat who, in the 
        guise of the Scarlet Pimpernel, rescues French aristocrats from
        the guillotine during the French Revolution.

  James Bond:  English spy character created by Ian Fleming for his James 
        Bond novels.  Portrayed in the movies by several actors, most 
        notably Sean Connery (1930-  ) and Roger Moore (1927-  ).

  Apocalypse:  A revelation.  Pertaining to the revelation granted to St. 
       John the Divine, and the book of the Bible (Revelation) in which 
       this is detailed.

  Arapaho:  A North American Indian people, nomadic buffalo-hunters of
       the Great Plains.

  Navajo:  A North American Indian people related to the Apache.

  Cannonball Express:  [?]

  Boot Hill:  [?]

  Marquis de Sade:  Donatien Alphonse Francois, Comte de Sade (1740-
        1814).  French author who wrote explicitly about many types
        of sexual practices.  He was imprisoned for sexual offences
        and eventually committed to an asylum.  The term sadism, to
        derive (sexual) pleasure from inflicting pain on others, is
        taken from his name.

  Chancy Gang:  [?]

  Mix, Tom:  (1880-1940)  American actor, most popular in silent-era
        westerns.  Noted for his flashy clothing and for performing
        his own daring stunt-work.  Films include "The Lone Star Ranger" 
        (1923), "Riders Of The Purple Sage" (1925) and "The Last Trail" 

  Jonah:  The book of Jonah in the Bible tells how the prophet Jonah was
        thrown from a ship in which he was sailing to escape the presence 
        of God.  Jonah was swallowed by 'a great fish', assumed to be a 
        whale, and was in the belly of the whale for three days and three 
        nights before the 'fish' was convinced by God to regurgitate the
        repentant Jonah safely onto dry land.

  Raleigh, Sir Walter:  (c.1552-1618)  English adventurer who made several
        exploring trips to the Americas, before his aggressive actions 
        towards the Spanish offended his king, James I, and he was 
        eventually charged with treason and executed.  Despite his 
        tendency to upset his king, Sir Walter was famed for his chivalric
        manners, such as putting down his coat over a muddy street so 
        that a lady might walk over it without getting her shoes soiled.
  Wayne, John:  (1907-1979)  The Duke.  American actor most popularly 
        known for his roles in Western films (winning an Oscar for "True 
        Grit", 1969).

  Langtry, Lillie:  (1853-1929)  Sensuous and beautiful English stage 
        actress, and mistress of (the future) Edward VII.

  Venus:  Roman goddess of love and beauty.

  Van Cleef, Lee:  (1925-1989)  American actor and archetypal western 
        villain.  Films include "High Noon" (1952), "How The West Was 
        Won" (1962) and "The Good, The Bad And The Ugly" (1967).

  Hopalong (Cassidy):  Moral gentleman cowboy character created by 
        Clarence E. Mulford (26 books published between 1912 and 1956).
        Portrayed in over sixty films and a TV series by American actor 
        William Boyd (1895-1972).

  OK Corral:  Scene of a famous gunfight in Tombstone, Arizona, in 1881.
        The shootout was between the former lawman Wyatt Earp, his 
        brothers Morgan and Virgil, and their friend Doc Holliday; and 
        Ike and Billy Clanton with Frank and Tom McLaury.  Billy Clanton
        and the McLaury Brothers were killed in the shooting.

  Lee, Bruce:  (1940-1973)  American actor and martial arts expert who 
        died young in mysterious circumstances.  Films include "Fists
        Of Fury" (1972) and "Enter The Dragon" (1973). 

  **  A month of Plutonian Sundays:  Okay, let's make this the saddest 
        entry in this document.  Assuming a month equals thirty days, 
        thirty days' worth of Plutonian Sundays is almost 192 Earth 
        days.  Wow, eh?  That's a long time to wait for Rimmer or anyone!

  **  "I'm going for a walk.  I may be some time.":  See the entries for
        Oates and for Scott, above in this section.

  **  Masonic handshake:  Apparent secret handshake of the Freemasons (or
        Free and Accepted Masons), the largest worldwide secret society
        (evolved from stonemasons and cathedral-builders' guilds of the 
        Middle Ages).
  **  Dodecahedron:  A twelve-sided figure.  For an expanding military 
        presence in the solar system, a bigger figure than a Pentagon is 
        needed.  The Pentagon of course being the five-sided building
        that is the centre for military administration and command in
        the United States.

  **  The Apocalypse Boys:  From the Bible (Revelation 6), the Four 
        Horsemen of the Apocalypse -- War (on a red horse), Famine (on
        a black horse), Death (on a pale horse) and Pestilence (on a 
        white horse).  These four were given power "over a fourth of 
        the earth, to kill with sword, with hunger, with death, and by
        the beasts of the earth".

  **  Venus on the half-shell:  This is how Venus is depicted in a 
        famous painting by Sandro Botticelli (1445-1510).  The painting, 
        currently hanging in the Uffizi Gallery in Florence, is "The 
        Birth Of Venus" (1482-1484).

  **  Slapping off shots with a carefree glee of FBI agents at a 
        religious cult's stockade:  A reference to the siege at Waco (Mt. 
        Carmel), Texas, in which blockaded members of a religious cult 
        (Branch Davidians under the leader David Khoresh) perished in a
        fire which began when FBI and other special teams stormed the 
        buildings on April 19, 1993.


  Catherine The Great:  (1729-1796)  Empress of Russia (1762-1796).  
        Astute ruler, notorious for her sexual appetite and string of 
        lovers.  Her husband Peter III was murdered in a coup in 1762 
        (allegedly by Aleksei Orlov, brother of Catherine's then-lover 
        Grigory Orlov), after which Catherine ruled alone.

  Byron, George Gordon:  (1788-1824)  British Romantic poet.

  Shelley, Percy Bysshe:  (1792-1822)  British lyric poet and pioneer of
        the Romantic movement.

  Lloyd Webber, Andrew:  (1948-  )  British composer and stage musical
        producer.  Hits include "Evita", "Cats" and "Phantom Of The 

  Happy Eater:  A chain of motorway or "A" road restaurants in the UK,
        with the charming logo of a smiling 'tomato' pointing to its
        own gaping mouth (makes me glad we don't have these in 
        Australia).  ;-)

  Bugs Bunny:  A wascally wabbit character in Warner Brothers' Loony 
       Tunes cartoons.

  Bridge at Remagen:  Remagen is a city on the Rhine River in western 
        Germany.  In March 1945 it was the site of a battle to allow the 
        Allied advance into Germany -- the taking of the railway bridge 
        into Remagen by Anglo-American forces enabled the establishment 
        of the first Allied bridgehead across the Rhine.

  Braun, Eva:  (1910-1945)  Adolf Hitler's mistress during the 1930s, they
        married in the bunker in Berlin in 1945, then committed suicide
        together the next day.  Must have been *one* disappointing 
        wedding night (unlike Lister, I shall not be so crude as to 
        speculate upon the reason...).

  Swindon:  Town in County Wiltshire in England.

  La Giaconda:  Italian name for da Vinci's painting "Mona Lisa" (1503-
        1506), the portrait of the lady with the enigmatic smile.

  Trafalgar Square:  Square in London.  Named for the naval battle of 
        Trafalgar in 1805, at which Nelson's fleet won a decisive victory
        over the Franco-Spanish fleet.

  The Carpenters:  Richard (1946-  ) and Karen (1950-1983), American 
        brother and sister singer/songwriter duo of the 1970s.  Hits 
        include "We've Only Just Begun", "Top Of The World" and "Please 
        Mr Postman".  The Carpenters finished with Karen's death from a 
        heart attack brought on by anorexia.

  Steele, Tommy:  (1936-  )  British entertainer.  Singer and actor, 
        origins in music hall.

  Alien:  (1979) British movie starring Sigourney Weaver and John Hurt.
        It was followed by two American sequels, "Aliens" (1986) and 
        "Alien^3" (1992), also starring Sigourney Weaver.

  Mary Poppins:  (1964)  American Walt Disney movie about the perfect 
        nanny, starring Julie Andrews (1935-  ) in the title role (for 
        which she won an Oscar).

  **  I Could Have Lanced All Night:  Song obviously ripped off from 
        "I Could Have Danced All Night" from the 1964 American musical 
        film "My Fair Lady", starring Rex Harrison and Audrey Hepburn as 
        Eliza Doolittle (singing the song with Marni Nixon's voice).

  **  Four Funerals And Another One:  Not as funny a movie as its 
        similarly-titled predecessor, the British film "Four Weddings And
        A Funeral" (1994) starring Hugh Grant and Andie MacDowell.

  **  Fame:  Song from the 1980 American film of the same name.  The 
        first line, as sung by one of the film's stars (Irene Cara), goes
        "Baby, look at me; and tell me what you see."

  **  Rimmer's Column:  Would presumably supersede Nelson's Column which 
        is currently in Trafalgar Square.

  **  I jog, therefore I am:  Yet another variation on the "I think, 
        therefore I am" principle by Rene Descartes.

  **  TJ H00KER:  Calculations inspired by the 1980s American police 
        'drama' series "T.J. Hooker", starring William Shatner (1931-  ) 
        in the title role.

  **  The Bitch Is Back:  Cinema publicity tag for the 1992 American 
        movie "Alien^3" (starring Sigourney Weaver and Lance Henricksen).
        Come on though, she's not so bad -- with a spoonful of sugar!